Pesticide extraction from table grapes and plums using ionic liquid based dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction

Ravelo-Pérez, Lidia M.; Hernández-Borges, Javier; Herrera-Herrera, Antonio V.; Rodríguez-Delgado, Miguel Ángel
December 2009
Analytical & Bioanalytical Chemistry;Dec2009, Vol. 395 Issue 7, p2387
Academic Journal
Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have been used as extraction solvents in dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME) for the determination of eight multi-class pesticides (i.e. thiophanate-methyl, carbofuran, carbaryl, tebuconazole, iprodione, oxyfluorfen, hexythiazox, and fenazaquin) in table grapes and plums. The developed method involves the combination of DLLME and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. Samples were first homogenized and extracted with acetonitrile. After evaporation and reconstitution of the extract in water containing sodium chloride, a quick DLLME procedure that used the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C6MIM][PF6]) and methanol was developed. The RTIL dissolved in a very small volume of acetonitrile was directed injected in the chromatographic system. The comparison between the calibration curves obtained from standards and from spiked sample extracts (matrix-matched calibration) showed the existence of a strong matrix effect for most of the analyzed pesticides. A recovery study was also developed with five consecutive extractions of the two types of fruits spiked at three concentration levels. Mean recovery values were in the range of 72–100% for table grapes and 66–105% for plum samples (except for thiophanate-methyl and carbofuran, which were 64–75% and 58–66%, respectively). Limits of detection (LODs) were in the range 0.651–5.44 µg/kg for table grapes and 0.902–6.33 µg/kg for plums, representing LODs below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) established by the European Union in these fruits. The potential of the method was demonstrated by analyzing 12 commercial fruit samples (six of each type).


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