The Role of Typhoon Songda (2004) in Producing Distantly Located Heavy Rainfall in Japan

Yongqing Wang; Yuqing Wang; Fudeyasu, Hironori
November 2009
Monthly Weather Review;Nov2009, Vol. 137 Issue 11, p3699
Academic Journal
When Typhoon Songda (2004) was located southeast of Okinawa over the western North Pacific during 2–4 September 2004, a heavy rainfall event occurred over southern central Japan and its adjacent seas, more than 1200 km from the typhoon center. The Advanced Research version of the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF-ARW) model was used to investigate the possible remote effects of Typhoon Songda on this heavy precipitation event in Japan. The National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) global final (FNL) analysis was used to provide both the initial and lateral boundary conditions for the WRF model. The model was initialized at 1800 UTC 2 September and integrated until 1800 UTC 6 September 2004, during which Songda was a supertyphoon. Two primary numerical experiments were performed. In the control experiment, a bogus vortex was inserted into the FNL analysis to enhance the initial storm intensity such that the model typhoon had an intensity that was similar to that observed at the initial time. In the no-typhoon experiment, the vortex associated with Typhoon Songda in the FNL analysis was removed by a smoothing algorithm such that the typhoon signal did not appear at the initial time. As verified against various observations, the control experiment captured reasonably well the evolution of the storm and the spatial distribution and evolution of the precipitation, whereas the remote precipitation in Japan was largely suppressed in the no-typhoon experiment, indicting the significant far-reaching effects of Typhoon Songda. Songda enhanced the remote precipitation in Japan mainly through northward moisture transport into the preconditioned precipitation region by its outer circulation. The orographic forcing of the central mountains in Japan played a small role compared with Typhoon Songda in this extreme precipitation event.


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