Tanzania national survey on iodine deficiency: impact after twelve years of salt iodation

Assey, Vincent D.; Peterson, Stefan; Kimboka, Sabas; Ngemera, Daniel; Mgoba, Celestin; Ruhiye, Deusdedit M.; Ndossi, Godwin D.; Greiner, Ted; Tylleskär, Thorkild
January 2009
BMC Public Health;2009, Vol. 9 Issue 1, p319
Academic Journal
Background: In many low-income countries, children are at high risk of iodine deficiency disorders, including brain damage. In the early 1990s, Tanzania, a country that previously suffered from moderate to severe iodine deficiency, adopted universal salt iodation (USI) as an intervention strategy, but its impact remained unknown. Methods: We report on the first national survey in mainland Tanzania, conducted in 2004 to assess the extent to which iodated salt was used and its apparent impact on the total goitre prevalence (TGP) and urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) among the schoolchildren after USI was initiated. In 2004, a cross-sectional goitre survey was conducted; covering 140,758 schoolchildren aged 6 - 18 years were graded for goitre according to new WHO goitre classification system. Comparisons were made with district surveys conducted throughout most of the country during the 1980s and 90s. 131,941 salt samples from households were tested for iodine using rapid field test kits. UIC was determined spectrophotometrically using the ammonium persulfate digestion method in 4523 sub-sampled children. Results: 83.6% (95% CI: 83.4 - 83.8) of salt samples tested positive for iodine. Whereas the TGP was about 25% on average in the earlier surveys, it was 6.9% (95%CI: 6.8-7.0) in 2004. The TGP for the younger children, 6-9 years old, was 4.2% (95%CI: 4.0-4.4), n = 41,965. In the 27 goitre-endemic districts, TGP decreased from 61% (1980s) to 12.3% (2004). The median UIC was 204 (95% CF: 192-215) μg/L. Only 25% of children had UIC <100 μg/L and 35% were ≥ 300 μg/L, indicating low and excess iodine intake, respectively. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates a marked improvement in iodine nutrition in Tanzania, twelve years after the initiation of salt iodation programme. The challenge in sustaining IDD elimination in Tanzania is now two-fold: to better reach the areas with low coverage of iodated salt, and to reduce iodine intake in areas where it is excessive. Particular attention is needed in improving quality control at production level and perhaps the national salt iodation regulations may need to be reviewed.


Related Articles

  • Goiter in Ancient Greek art. Laios, Konstantinos; Tsoucalas, Gregory; Karamanou, Marianna; Androutsos, George // Indian Journal of Endocrinology & Metabolism;Jan/Feb2015, Vol. 19 Issue 1, p190 

    A letter to the editor is presented about the representation of goiter in Ancient Greek art.

  • Iodine deficiency in Turkey. Yordam, N.; Özön, A.; Alikaşifoglu, A.; Özgen, A.; Ceren, N.; Zafer, Y.; Şimşek, E.; Ozön, A; Alikaşifoğlu, A; Ozgen, A; Simşek, E // European Journal of Pediatrics;1999, Vol. 158 Issue 6, p501 

    Unlabelled: Turkey is an iodine deficiency area. The overall goitre prevalence is thought to be 30%, and most epidemiological studies give figures compatible with mild to moderate iodine deficiency. However, it is suspected that there are regions where iodine deficiency might be...

  • Limited Access to Iodized Salt among the Poor and Disadvantaged in North 24 Parganas District of West Bengal, India.  // Journal of Health, Population & Nutrition;Aug2010, Vol. 28 Issue 4, p369 

    No abstract available.

  • Control of iodine-deficiency disorders following universal salt iodization in Shenzhen, China, 1997-2011. Wei Huang; Chaoqiong Peng; Haixiong Huang; Jinzhou Zhang; Jianping Liu; Lisha Mao; Ruorong Luo; Yunjun Xiao // Food & Nutrition Bulletin;Sep2013, Vol. 34 Issue 3, p331 

    Background. Since universal salt iodization (USI) was implemented in Shenzhen, China, in 1996, evaluation of the time trend of USI to indicate the control of iodinedeficiency disorders has not been performed. Objective. To assess the time trend of median urinary iodine and total goiter rates...

  • For debate: Drifting continents and endemic goitre in northern Pakistan. Stewart, Alex G. // BMJ: British Medical Journal (International Edition);6/9/90, Vol. 300 Issue 6738, p1507 

    Examines the iodine deficiency disorders in Pakistan. Signs and symptoms of a disease; Development of goiter caused by iodine ion deficiency; Prevalence and measures of the condition.

  • Prevalence of Goiter in the Children of 6-12 years in Porbandar district, Gujarat, India. Kotecha, Ilesh; Bhalani, Kailesh; Singh, M. P. // National Journal of Integrated Research in Medicine;2012, Vol. 3 Issue 1, p115 

    Research Question: What is the situation of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) and salt consumption in Porbandar district? Objectives: To assess the magnitude of IDD in Porbandar district and also assess the salt consumption patterns in the region. Design: Cross Sectional Study. Setting: Primary...

  • Iodine deficiency disorders in the Maldives: A public health problem. Cs Pandav; M Rasheed; I Solih; M Saeed; M Shaheed; A Awal; K Anand; R Shreshta; Pandav, Cs // Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition;Mar1999, Vol. 8 Issue 1, p9 

    Because the Maldives is a country of islands it has been assumed, until now, that iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) are not a public health problem. However, no systematic scientific survey has been carried out to assess the status of IDD in the Maldives. This study represents the first IDD...

  • National Trends in Iodine Nutrition: Is Everyone Getting Enough. Elizabeth N. Pearce // Thyroid;Sep2007, Vol. 17 Issue 9, p823 

    Iodine deficiency is an important public health problem worldwide. Until the 1920s, endemic iodine deficiency disorders were prevalent in the Great Lakes, Appalachian, and Northwestern regions of the United States. Iodized salt was responsible for eliminating endemic goiter in the United States...

  • Endemic goitre in the absence of iodine deficiency in schoolchildren of the Northern Cape Province of South Africa. Jooste, P. L.; Weight, M. J. // European Journal of Clinical Nutrition;Jan1999, Vol. 53 Issue 1, p8 

    Presents information on a study which investigated the existence of endemic goitre in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa and the link of iodine deficiency to the goitres. Methods used; Results and discussion; Conclusion.


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics