Gynecomastia: Pathophysiology, Evaluation, and Management

Johnson, Ruth E.; Murad, M. Hassan
November 2009
Mayo Clinic Proceedings;Nov2009, Vol. 84 Issue 11, p1010
Academic Journal
Gynecomastia, defined as benign proliferation of male breast glandular tissue, is usually caused by increased estrogen activity, decreased testosterone activity, or the use of numerous medications. Although a fairly common presentation in the primary care setting and mostly of benign etiology, it can cause patients considerable anxiety. The initial step is to rule out pseudogyne- comastla by careful history taking and physical examination. A stepwise approach that includes imaging and laboratory testing to exclude neoplasms and endocrinopathies may facilitate cost- effective diagnosis, If results of all studies are normal, idiopathic gynecomastia Is diagnosed. The evidence In this area Is mainly of observational nature and lower quality.


Related Articles

  • Asymmetric dimethylarginine correlates with measures of disease severity, major adverse cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in patients with peripheral arterial disease.  // Current Medical Literature: Cardiology;2010, Vol. 29 Issue 4, p117 

    The article looks at the potential of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) in assessing severity, cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD), based on the published study in the 2010 edition of "Vascular Medicine." The study was performed on...

  • Evaluation of breast masses in older men. Hines, Stephanie L.; Tan, Winston; Larson, Jan M.; Thompson, Kristine M.; Jorn, H. Keels S.; Files, Julia A. // Geriatrics;Jun2008, Vol. 63 Issue 6, p19 

    Breast cancer must be considered in the evaluation of breast masses in men, although various benign causes are more common, including gynecomastia and conditions of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. A patient's history may identify key features suspicious for malignancy or reassuring for benign...

  • STANDARD MANAGEMENT OF VENOUS THROMBOSIS. Hume, Michael // Vascular Surgery;Jul/Aug1977, Vol. 11 Issue 4, p197 

    Discusses the standard management of thrombosis. Purpose of physical examinations; Objectives of standard therapy with anticoagulant drugs; Advantage of warfarin therapy.

  • INFLAMMATORY INTRAMAMMARY LYMPH NODE - A BENIGN LESION SIMULATING MALIGNANCY ON BREAST MRI. Panourgias, E.; Zervoudis, S.; Koureas, A. // Acta Endocrinologica (1841-0987);Apr-Jun2009, Vol. 5 Issue 2, p259 

    Background: Similarities between benign and malignant characteristics of enlarged LN,s are observed on radiological studies. Case report: We present a case of an inflammatory intramammary lymph node, which on dynamic MRI presented enhancement features suspicious of malignancy. A 45-year-old...

  • Markery biochemiczne udaru niedokrwiennego mózgu. Bielewicz, Joanna; Kurzepa, Jacek; Stelmasiak, Zbigniew; Bartosik-Psujek, Halina // Current Problems of Psychiatry;2011, Vol. 12 Issue 4, p488 

    Because of limitations of currently available diagnostic methods (physical examination, brain imaging) the other valid and objective tests are needed for diagnosis and management of ischemic stroke (IS). In the past decade many studies have investigated biochemical markers of IS. The aim of that...

  • Panax Ginseng: A Newly Identified Cause of Gynecomastia. Kakisaka, Yosuke; Ohara, Tomoichiro; Tozawa, Hideo; Sato, Shun; Katayama, Saori; Suzuki, Tasuku; Hino-Fukuyo, Naomi; Kure, Shigeo // Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine;Oct2012, Vol. 228 Issue 2, p143 

    Gynecomastia or benign proliferation of the male breast glandular tissue is not uncommon for adolescent males. Its pathogenesis has been attributed to a transient imbalance between estrogens and androgens. Ginseng is a popular herb with a long history of medicinal use. Oriental folk medicine...

  • GASTRIC OUTLET OBSTRUCTION DUE TO ADENOCARCINOMA OF THE DUODENUM INFILTRATING THE HEAD OF PANCREAS: A CASE REPORT. Naeem, Prince; Khan, Rizwan Ahmed; Rashid, Hamad Bin; Chaudhry, Mamoona // Science International;Jul/Aug2014, Vol. 26 Issue 3, p1197 

    Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) or Pyloric obstruction is not a sole disorder. It is a clinical and pathophysiological consequence of many disease processes that produce mechanical obstruction to gastric emptying due to complete or impartial obstruction of distal stomach, pylorus or proximal...

  • Successful Percutaneous Dihydrotestosterone Treatment of Gynecomastia Occurring during Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy: Four Cases and a Review of the Literature. Benveniste, Olivier; Simon, Anne; Herson, Serge // Clinical Infectious Diseases;9/15/2001, Vol. 33 Issue 6, p891 

    Fourteen cases of gynecomastia occurring during highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) have been reported in the literature. To date, no specific therapeutic approach has been proposed, and gynecomastia has usually persisted. We report 4 new cases of HAART-induced gynecomastia that were...

  • Relación entre Índice de Masa Corporal, Parámetros Fisiológicos del Semen y Peril Hormonal en Hombres que Acuden a Consulta en Clínica de Fertilidad. Alvarado, María Matilde Ramírez; Roitz, César Sánchez; de González, Norma Oñate; Torrealba, Gabriela Moreno; Breña, Antonio Sanoja // Informe Medico;may2011, Vol. 13 Issue 5, p205 

    Is has been suggested that body mass index (BMI), particularly obesity, is associated with subfertility in men. Semen quality is central to male fertility and reproductive hormones also play a role in spermatogenesis. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics