Relationships Between the Front Crawl Stroke Parameters of Competitive Unilateral Arm Amputee Swimmers, With Selected Anthropometric Characteristics

Osborough, Conor D.; Payton, Carl J.; Daly, Daniel J.
November 2009
Journal of Applied Biomechanics;Nov2009, Vol. 25 Issue 4, p304
Academic Journal
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between swimming speed (SS), stroke length (SL), and stroke frequency (SF) for competitive single-arm amputee front crawl swimmers and assess their relationships with anthropometric characteristics. Thirteen highly trained swimmers (3 male, 10 female) were filmed underwater from a lateral view during seven increasingly faster 25-m front crawl trials. Increases in SS (above 75% of maximum SS) were achieved by a 5% increase in SF, which coincided with a 2% decrease in SL. At SSmax, interswimmer correlations showed that SF was significantly related to SS (r = .72; p < .01) whereas SL was not. Moderate but nonsignificant correlations suggested that faster swimmers did not necessarily use longer and slower strokes to swim at a common submaximal speed when compared with their slower counterparts. No correlations existed between SL and any anthropometric characteristics. Biacromial breadth, shoulder girth, and upper-arm length all significantly correlated with the SF used at SSmax. These findings imply that as a consequence of being deprived of an important propelling limb, at fast swimming speeds SF is more important than SL in influencing the performance outcome of these single-arm amputee swimmers.


Related Articles

  • The Crawl Turn.  // Humpty Dumpty's Magazine;Apr/May2000, Vol. 48 Issue 3, p10 

    Discusses the execution of the crawl turn swimming technique for children swimmers.

  • The Effect of Fatigue on the Underwater Arm Stroke Motion in the 100-m Front Crawl. Suito, Hiroshi; Ikegami, Yasuo; Nunome, Hiroyuki; Sano, Shinya; Shinkai, Hironari; Tsujimoto, Norio // Journal of Applied Biomechanics;Nov2008, Vol. 24 Issue 4, p316 

    The purpose of this study was to indicate the effect of fatigue on the underwater right arm stroke motion during the 100-m front crawl. The arm stroke motions of eight male competitive swimmers were captured three-dimensionally at 60 Hz in the positions of 15 m and 65 m from the start. The hand...

  • "Which is the Most Efficient Crawl Arm Action?" A discussion that continues today... Colwin, Cecil M. // American Swimming;2010, Vol. 2010 Issue 5, p10 

    The article provides an explanation on two different modes of crawl arm action in swimming which is used by top-line performers in modern competitive swimming in the U.S. It mentions the stroke number one which the swimmer recovers his arm from the water at the same speed as the driving arm. It...

  • Perceived Exertion at Different Percents of The Critical Velocity in Front Crawl. Franken, M.; Diefenthaeler, F.; Castro de Souza, F. A. // XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics & Medicine in Swim;2010, Issue 11, p257 

    The aim of the present study was to compare and correlate the perceived exertion (PE) behaviour at different percents of the critical velocity (CV) in front crawl. Ten trained male swimmers (19.4 ± 2.2 years) performed five trials of 200 m at different percents of the CV (90, 95, 100, 103 and...

  • The Influence of Swimming Start Components for Selected Olympic and Paralympic Swimmers. Burkett, Brendan; Mellifont, Rebecca; Mason, Bruce // Journal of Applied Biomechanics;May2010, Vol. 26 Issue 2, p134 

    This study compared the components of the 15-m swimming start for 20 international male Olympic and Paralympic swimmers. The time, distance, and velocity components for freestyle swimming were measured. There were significantly (p < .05) different absolute and relative swim start measures among...

  • Pinky power. Dalbey, Troy // Swimming World & Junior Swimmer;Apr99, Vol. 40 Issue 4, p39 

    Part I. Takes a look at how the pinky finger can enhance a swimmer's efficiency and distance per stroke. Focus on freestyle technique; Role of the pinky finger in controlling the pitch of the hand; Practice drills.

  • Effects of Arms-Only Swimming Training on Performance, Movement Economy, and Aerobic Power. Konstantaki, Maria; Winter, Edward; Swaine, Ian // International Journal of Sports Physiology & Performance;Sep2008, Vol. 3 Issue 3, p294 

    Context: Forward propulsion in freestyle swimming is predominantly achieved through arm action. Few studies have assessed the effects of arm training on arm power and swimming performance, yet there have not been any investigations on the effects of arms-only swimming training on swimming...

  • Upper Extremity and Trunk Stabilization Exercises for Swimmers. Konin, Jeff; Barany, Matt // Athletic Therapy Today;Jan2005, Vol. 10 Issue 1, p30 

    Discusses upper extremity and trunk stabilization exercises for swimmers. Propulsion and recovery phase exhibited by the freestyle, backstroke, breaststroke and butterfly stroke; Importance of maintaining the ability to establish proper core positioning and stability while functionally...

  • ARM ENTRY. HAVRILUK, ROD // Swimming World;Jan2016, Vol. 57 Issue 1, p10 

    The article offers information on several swimming techniques and misconceptions related to arm entry. Topics discussed include complete arm entry to parallel being a misconception in freestyle and backstroke, a swimmer need to maintain downward angle of arm as it straightens to improve arm...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics