Adsorption of cesium on domestic bentonites

Galamboš, Michal; Kufčáková, Jana; Rajec, Pavol
September 2009
Journal of Radioanalytical & Nuclear Chemistry;Sep2009, Vol. 281 Issue 3, p485
Academic Journal
Bentonite is a natural clay and one of the most promising candidates for use as a buffer material in the geological disposal systems for spent nuclear fuel and high-level nuclear waste. It is intended to isolate metal canisters with highly radioactive waste products from the surrounding rocks because of its ability to retard the movement of radionuclides by adsorption. Slovak Republic avails of many significant deposits of bentonites. Adsorption of Cs on five Slovak bentonites of deposits (Jelšový potok, Kopernica, Lieskovec, Lastovce and Dolná Ves) has been studied with the use of batch technique. In the case of Dolná Ves deposit, the mixed-layer illite–smectite has been identified as the main clay component. Natural and irradiated samples, in two different kinds of grain size: 45 and 250 μm have been used in the experiments. The adsorptions of Cs on bentonite under various experimental conditions, such as contact time, adsorbent and adsorbate concentrations have been studied. The Cation Exchange Capacity values for particular deposits drop in the following order: Jelšový potok > Kopernica > Lieskovec > Lastovce > Dolná Ves. Bentonites irradiated samples with 390 kGy have shown higher specific surface and higher values of the adsorption capacity. Distribution coefficients have been determined for bentonite-cesium solution system as a function of contact time and adsorbate and adsorbent concentration. The data have been interpreted in terms of Langmuir isotherm. The uptake of Cs has been rapid and the adsorption of cesium has increased with increasing metal concentrations. The adsorption percentage has decreased with increasing of metal concentrations. Adsorption of Cs has been suppressed by presence of Ca2+ more than Na+ cation. Sorption experiments carried out show that the most suitable materials intended for use as barriers surrounding a canister of spent nuclear fuel are bentonites of the Jelšový potok and Kopernica deposits.


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