Non-local observables and lightcone-averaging in relativistic thermodynamics

Dunkel, Jörn; Hänggi, Peter; Hilbert, Stefan
October 2009
Nature Physics;Oct2009, Vol. 5 Issue 10, p741
Academic Journal
The unification of relativity and thermodynamics has been a subject of considerable debate over the past 100 years. The reasons for this are twofold. First, thermodynamic variables are non-local quantities and therefore single out a preferred class of hyperplanes in spacetime. Second, there exist different ways of defining heat and work in relativistic systems and all of them seem equally plausible. These ambiguities have led, for example, to various proposals for the Lorentz-transformation law of temperature. However, traditional ‘isochronous’ formulations of relativistic thermodynamics are neither theoretically satisfactory nor experimentally feasible. Here, we demonstrate how these deficiencies can be resolved by defining thermodynamic quantities with respect to the backward-lightcone of an observation event. This approach yields new predictions that are, in principle, testable and allows for a straightforward extension of thermodynamics to general relativity. Our theoretical considerations are illustrated through three-dimensional relativistic many-body simulations.


Related Articles

  • Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation study of a relativistic magnetron. Lemke, R.W.; Genoni, T.C. // Physics of Plasmas;Feb99, Vol. 6 Issue 2, p603 

    Investigates the A6 (six cavity) magnetron operated at relativistic voltages using a three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation. Mode control; Causes and prevention of leakage current; Voltage scaling; Functional dependence of operating voltage on applied magnetic field.

  • Entropy Generation in MHD Free Convective Boundary Layer Flow Past an Inclined Flat Plate Embedded in a Porous Medium with Hall Currents. Das, S.; Sarkar, B. C.; Jana, R. N. // International Journal of Computer Applications;Dec2013, Vol. 84, p36 

    An analysis of entropy generation in an MHD boundary layer flow of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid past an inclined flat plate embedded in a porous media in a rotating system with Hall currents has been presented. The governing equations describing the flow have been...

  • The Spectral Properties of two Interacting Electrons in a Quantum Dot. Elsaid, Mohammad // Turkish Journal of Physics;2002, Vol. 26 Issue 5, p331 

    Presents a study which discussed the transition in the spin and angular momenta of the Quantum Dot ground state as the magnetic field sweeps. Use of the shifted 1/N expansion method; Benefits from the method; Motive for research conducted on quasi-zero dimensional systems; Focus of the use of...

  • Imposing a magnetic field across a nonaxisymmetric shear layer in a rotating spherical shell. Hollerbach, Rainer // Physics of Fluids;Jul94, Vol. 6 Issue 7, p2540 

    In the context of the generation of the Earth's magnetic field, nonaxisymmetric solutions of the forced momentum equation in a rotating spherical shell are considered in the inertia-less, inviscid limit. It has previously been pointed out that, in general, such solutions are singular, with all...

  • Generalized lower-hybrid drift instabilities in current-sheet equilibrium. Yoon, Peter H.; Lui, Anthony T. Y.; Sitnov, Mikhail I. // Physics of Plasmas;May2002, Vol. 9 Issue 5, p1526 

    A class of drift instabilities in one-dimensional current-sheet configuration, i.e., classical Harris equilibrium, with frequency ranging from low ion–cyclotron to intermediate lower-hybrid frequencies, are investigated with an emphasis placed on perturbations propagating along the...

  • Enhancement of the spin entropy in NaxCo2O4 by Ni doping. Tang, Guodong; Teng Yang; Xiaonong Xu; Chipui Tang; Li Qiu; Zhidong Zhang; Liya Lv; Zhihe Wang; Youwei Du // Applied Physics Letters;7/19/2010, Vol. 97 Issue 3, p032108 

    The effects of Ni doping on the spin entropy in NaxCo2O4 (x=1.2) has been carefully studied. A strong magnetic-field suppression of the thermopower indicates the emergence of large spin-entropy effect. The magnetothermopower increases with increasing Ni doping level, suggesting that Ni doping...

  • Physics of collisionless reconnection in a stressed X-point collapse. Tsiklauri, D.; Haruki, T. // Physics of Plasmas;Oct2008, Vol. 15 Issue 10, p102902 

    Recently, magnetic reconnection during collisionless, stressed, X-point collapse was studied using kinetic, 2.5-dimensional, fully electromagnetic, relativistic particle-in-cell numerical code [D. Tsiklauri and T. Haruki, Phys. Plasmas 14, 112905 (2007)]. Here we finalize the investigation of...

  • Energetic electron acceleration during multi-island coalescence. Pritchett, P. L. // Physics of Plasmas;Oct2008, Vol. 15 Issue 10, p102105 

    The mechanisms for the production of relativistic electrons associated with the coalescence/reconnection of multiple magnetic islands are investigated using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations for the case where the initial island half width L is comparable to the ion inertia length....

  • Anomalous skin effects in relativistic parallel propagating weakly magnetized electron plasma waves. Abbas, Gohar; Bashir, M. F.; Murtaza, G. // Physics of Plasmas;Oct2011, Vol. 18 Issue 10, p102115 

    Fully relativistic analysis of anomalous skin effects for parallel propagating waves in a weakly magnetized electron plasma is presented and general expressions for longitudinal and transverse permittivites are derived. It is found that the penetration depth for R- and L-waves increases as we...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics