TestSmart—High Production Volume Chemicals: An Approach to Implementing Alternatives into Regulatory Toxicology

Green, Sidney; Goldberg, Alan; Zurlo, Joanne
September 2001
Toxicological Sciences;Sep2001, Vol. 63 Issue 1, p6
Academic Journal
This article examines the status and application of alternatives defined as replacements, refinements, and reduction for screening high production volume (HPV) chemicals. It specifically focuses on the Screening Information Data Set (SIDS), a series of toxicological tests recommended by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development to screen such chemicals. Alternative tests associated with acute, repeat-dose, genetic, and reproductive and developmental toxicity were examined at 2 meetings of academic, industry, and regulatory scientists and their status determined. Tests were placed in 1 of 3 categories: ready for immediate use, in need of or currently undergoing validation, or needing research/developmental work. With respect to traditional acute toxicity testing, the basal cytotoxicity approach was placed in the category of research with the up-and-down, fixed-dose, limit test, and the acute toxic class categorized as available for immediate use and the neutral red assay under validation. Cell culture methods that could provide information on acute target organ toxicity were all categorized in the research stage. Studies of the Ah receptor were placed under validation. All alternative tests for repeat-dose toxicity were placed in the category of research. With regard to genetic toxicity, the Ames, mouse lymphoma, and Chinese hamster ovary methods were considered ready for immediate use, while the in vitro micronucleus and Syrian hamster ovary assays were placed in the validation category. All alternatives for developmental toxicity, with the exception of gene chip technology, were placed in the category of validation. Gene chip technology is considered to be in the research stage. For reproductive toxicity, sperm motility and morphology were considered as ready for immediate use, with the other assays categorized as needing validation or in the research stage. Follow-up to these results is obvious. Work needs to be conducted to move those tests from the research stage to the validation and use stage. This is one approach to the development of alternatives to SIDS. Progress along these lines would apply not only to SIDS but also to toxicology in general.


Related Articles

  • Cytotoxic effects of calicium hydroxide and mineral trioxide aggregate on 3T3 fibroblast cell line in vitro. Sepet, Elif; Pinar, Arzu; Ilhan, Banu; Ulukapi, Isin; Bilir, Ayhan; Tuna, Sevilcan // Quintessence International;Sep2009, Vol. 40 Issue 8, pe55 

    Objectives: To examine the cytotoxic effects of MTA and Ca(OH)2 on 3T3 fibroblasts at different time intervals. Methods: Confluent cells were cultured with Ca(OH)2 and MTA in sixwell plates. Wells with only fibroblasts served as controls. Cell number and viability were determined after 24 and 48...

  • Cell culture systems are more sensitive than Saccharomyces cervisiae tests for assessing the toxicity of aquatic pollutants. Mochida, Kyo; Gomyoda, Manabu; Fujita, Tokio; Yamagata, Kei // Bulletin of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology;Jul1988, Vol. 41 Issue 1, p1 

    The article presents a study which examines the sensitivity of cell culture systems and Saccharomyces cervisiae test in toxicity assement of aquatic pollutants. The study uses the bioassay systems and bacteria assay to evaluate the toxicity of aquatic pollutions. It also used the cell culture...

  • LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS IN ACUTE POISONING. Volans, Glynn; Widdop, Brian // British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Edition);8/18/1984, Vol. 289 Issue 6442, p426 

    Focuses on the laboratory investigations in acute poisoning. Consideration of each individual case in suspected poisoning; Importance of biochemical tests for the assessment of prognosis and treatment; Basis of specific treatments on the toxicological and clinical criteria.

  • Hormesis and risk communication. Renn, Ortwin // Human & Experimental Toxicology;Jan2003, Vol. 22 Issue 1, p3 

    Hormesis has been defined as a dose-response relationship in which there is a stimulatory response at low doses, but an inhibiting response at high doses, resulting in a U- or inverted U-shaped dose response. Toxic agents that are detrimental to human health above certain threshold levels may...

  • Chemical toxicity of red cells Piomelli, S. // Environmental Health Perspectives;Jun1981, Vol. 39, p65 

    No abstract available.

  • The Effect of Copper Toxicity on the Growth and Root Morphology of Rhodes Grass ( Chloris gayana Knuth.) in Resin Buffered Solution Culture. Sheldon, A. R.; Menzies, N. W. // Plant & Soil;Dec2005, Vol. 278 Issue 1/2, p341 

    A solution culture experiment was conducted to examine the effect of Cu toxicity on Rhodes grass ( Chloris gayana Knuth.), a pasture species used in mine-site rehabilitation. The experiment used dilute, solution culture to achieve external nutrient concentrations, which were representative of...

  • DNA integrity of chub erythrocytes ( Squalius cephalus L.) as an indicator of pollution-related genotoxicity in the River Sava. Pavlica, Mirjana; Štambuk, Anamaria; Malović, Lana; Mladinić, Marin; Klobučar, Göran I. V. // Environmental Monitoring & Assessment;Jun2011, Vol. 177 Issue 1-4, p85 

    n alkaline comet assay and a micronucleus test were carried out on erythrocytes of the European chub, Squalius cephalus L., collected in spring and autumn in 2005 and 2006 at three sampling sites in River Sava, near Zagreb, Croatia. The results of comet assay showed the lowest genotoxic...

  • A Fungus Capable of Degrading Microcystin-LR in the Algal Culture of Microcystis aeruginosa PCC7806. Jia, Yong; Du, Jingjing; Song, Fuqiang; Zhao, Guiying; Tian, Xingjun // Applied Biochemistry & Biotechnology;Mar2012, Vol. 166 Issue 4, p987 

    Microcystins (MCs) are a family of natural toxins produced by cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). Microbial degradation is considered an efficient method for eliminating cyanobacteria and MCs in environmental conditions. This study examines the ability of Trichaptum abietinum 1302BG, a white rot...

  • Human cell cultures as an assay for the toxicity of antioxidants Goto, M.; Mochida, K.; Saito, K. // Bulletin of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology;Oct1985, Vol. 35 Issue 4, p427 

    No abstract available.


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics