Geographical patterns in blood lead in relation to industrial emissions and traffic in Swedish children, 1978--2007

Stroh, Emilie; Lundh, Thomas; Oudin, Anna; Skerfving, Staffan; Strömberg, Ulf
January 2009
BMC Public Health;2009, Vol. 9 Issue 1, p225
Academic Journal
Background: Blood lead concentrations (B-Pb) were measured in 3 879 Swedish school children during the period 1978-2007. The objective was to study the effect of the proximity to lead sources based on the children's home and school location. Methods: The children's home address and school location were geocoded and their proximity to a lead smelter and major roads was calculated using geographical information system (GIS) software. All the statistical analyses were carried out using means of generalized log-linear modelling, with natural-logarithm-transformed B-Pb, adjusted for sex, school year, lead-exposing hobby, country of birth and, in the periods 1988-1994 and 1995-2007, parents' smoking habits. Results: The GIS analysis revealed that although the emission from the smelter and children's BPb levels had decreased considerably since 1978, proximity to the lead smelter continued to affect levels of B-Pb, even in recent years (geometric mean: near smelter: 22.90 μg/l; far from smelter 19.75 μg/l; p = 0.001). The analysis also revealed that proximity to major roads noticeably affected the children's B-Pb levels during the period 1978-1987 (geometric mean near major roads: 44.26 μg/l; far from roads: 38.32 μg/l; p = 0.056), due to the considerable amount of lead in petrol. This effect was, however, not visible after 1987 due to prohibition of lead in petrol. Conclusion: The results show that proximity to the lead smelter still has an impact on the children's B-Pb levels. This is alarming since it could imply that living or working in the vicinity of a former lead source could pose a threat years after reduction of the emission. The analysis also revealed that urban children exposed to lead from traffic were only affected during the early period, when there were considerable amounts of lead in petrol, and that the prohibition of lead in petrol in later years led to reduced levels of lead in the blood of urban children.


Related Articles

  • Influence of geocoding quality on environmental exposure assessment of children living near high traffic roads. Zandbergen, Paul A. // BMC Public Health;2007, Vol. 7 Issue 1, p37 

    Background: The widespread availability of powerful geocoding tools in commercial GIS software and the interest in spatial analysis at the individual level have made address geocoding a widely employed technique in epidemiological studies. This study determined the effect of the positional error...

  • Determination of urinary lead in school children in Manzini, Swaziland, Southern Africa. Okonkwo, Jonathan O.; Lwenje, Salia M.; Mtetwa, Victor S.B.; Gumedze, Patience N.; Shilongonyane, Mbuso M. // Environmentalist;Sep2001, Vol. 21 Issue 3, p205 

    Analyzes the urinary lead concentrations of school children in Manzini region, Swaziland. Efficacy of a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer in determining urinary lead levels; Comparison of urine lead concentration between rural and urban schools; Influence of traffic density on...

  • Low Blood Lead Concentrations and Cognitive Development of Primary School Children from Three Areas in Malaysia. Zailina, H.; Junidah, R.; Saliza, M. E.; Shamsul, B. S.; Jamal, H. H. // Journal of Environmental Science & Engineering;Apr2011, Vol. 5 Issue 4, p493 

    A study on to identify the relationship between blood lead and cognitive development was conducted on primary school children in Malaysia. About 413 children aged 6� - 8� years from urban (236), rural (80) and industrial areas (97) were studied. Blood lead was analyzed using the Atomic...

  • Exploring Walking Path Quality as a Factor for Urban Elementary School Children's Active Transport to School. Curriero, Frank C.; James, Nathan T.; Shields, Timothy M.; Roman, Caterina Gouvis; Furr-Holden, C. Debra M.; Cooley-Strickland, Michele; Pollack, Keshia M. // Journal of Physical Activity & Health;Mar2013, Vol. 10 Issue 3, p323 

    Background: Path quality has not been well studied as a correlate of active transport to school. We hypothesize that for urban-dwelling children the environment between home and school is at least as important as the environment immediately surrounding their homes and/or schools when exploring...

  • The Relationship of Concentrations of Lead and Zinc and Multiple Sclerosis in Isfahan Province, Iran. Khosravi, Elham; Houdaji, Mehran; Etemadifar, Masoud // Journal of Isfahan Medical School;Apr2014, Vol. 32 Issue 275, p1 

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the most common diseases in neurology and mostly occurs in young adults. The disease is clinically characterized by the involvement of different parts of the central nervous system at different times. Not a cause for the disease has been obtained,...

  • An epidemiological re-appraisal of the association between blood pressure and blood lead: a meta-analysis. Nawrot, T.S.; Thijs, L.; Den Hond, E.M.; Roels, H.A.; Staessen, J.A. // Journal of Human Hypertension;Feb2002, Vol. 16 Issue 2, p123 

    Presents a meta-analysis of the association between blood pressure and blood lead. Identification of relevant studies for inclusion; Effect of lead exposure on blood pressure; Estimation of the association size.

  • Blood-Lead Levels in Children Plunge, New Report Concludes.  // Paint & Coatings Industry;Oct98, Vol. 14 Issue 10, p3 

    Reports on the decrease in the number of children with elevated blood-lead levels from 1970-1998. Definition of an elevated lead level in the blood; Impact of the elimination of lead in paint and gasoline in childhood blood-lead levels; Comment by Stephen Sides, director of health, safety and...

  • Screening for Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Children and Pregnant Women. MABRY, IRIS R. // American Family Physician;11/15/2008, Vol. 78 Issue 10, p1201 

    A quiz about evaluation for increased blood lead levels in children and pregnant women is presented.

  • EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE IN PREGNANCY AND LEAD LEVEL IN MATERNAL BLOOD AT DELIVERY. Jędrychowski, Wiesław; Flak, Elżbieta; Mróz, Elżbieta; Rauh, Virginia; Caldwell, Kathleen; Jones, Robert; Skolicki, Zbigniew; Kaim, Irena; Perera, Frederica // International Journal of Occupational Medicine & Environmental H;Oct2006, Vol. 19 Issue 4, p205 

    Objectives: The particular purpose of our study was to assess the impact of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on the individual variability of blood lead levels in pregnant women as earlier publications demonstrated the increased blood lead in smokers. Materials and Methods: The material...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics