Co-incorporation effects of O and Na with CulnS[sub 2] thin films

Fukuzaki, Koichi; Kohiki, Shigemi; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Oku, Masaoki; Watanabe, Takayuki
October 2000
Applied Physics Letters;10/23/2000, Vol. 77 Issue 17
Academic Journal
By using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy we have examined changes in the electronic structure of CuInS[sub 2] thin films with co-incorporation of O and Na that raised up the photovoltaic performance of CdS/CuInS[sub 2] solar cells. The electron binding energies of both the core levels and valence band for the film with the co-incorporation were smaller by 0.9 eV than those for the film without the co-incorporation. For the co-incorporated film an increase in the spectral intensity of the valence band was observed below 1-6 eV from the Cu 3d[sup 10] nonbonding states, and it was due to both the Na s, p-S p hybridization and the In s-Op hybridization. The surface of the co-incorporated film can be expressed as (Cu, Na)In(S, O)[sub 2]. The (Cu, Na)In(S, O)[sub 2] phase is related to the enlarged open-circuit voltage (0.75 eV) of n-CdS/p-CuInS[sub 2] solar cells. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.


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