Interdiffusion of molecular acceptors through organic layers to metal substrates mimics doping-related energy level shifts

Duhm, Steffen; Salzmann, Ingo; Bröker, Benjamin; Glowatzki, Hendrik; Johnson, Robert L.; Koch, Norbert
August 2009
Applied Physics Letters;8/31/2009, Vol. 95 Issue 9, p093305
Academic Journal
Photoemission measurements reveal energy level shifts toward the Fermi level when a strong electron acceptor (tetrafluoro-tetracyanoquinodimethane, F4-TCNQ) is deposited on pristine layers of 4,4′,4″-tris(N,N-diphenyl-amino)triphenylamine (TDATA) or 4,4′-bis(N-carbazolyl)biphenyl (CBP). The shifts of the TDATA and CBP energy levels toward the Fermi level of the Au substrate could, in principle, arise from p-type doping of the intrinsic organic layers. While this indeed takes place in TDATA, doping of CBP by F4-TCNQ, i.e., charge transfer complex formation, does not occur. The shifts observed in CBP arise from the diffusion of F4-TCNQ toward the Au substrate, which modifies the buried metal surface potential, leading to a realignment of the energy levels of the organic overlayer.


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