Climatology of Severe Hail in Finland: 1930–2006

Tuovinen, Jari-Petteri; Punkka, Ari-Juhani; Rauhala, Jenni; Hohti, Harri; Schultz, David M.
July 2009
Monthly Weather Review;Jul2009, Vol. 137 Issue 7, p2238
Academic Journal
A climatology of severe hail (2 cm in diameter or larger) in Finland was constructed by collecting newspaper, storm-spotter, and eyewitness reports. The climatology covered the warm season (1 May–14 September) during the 77-yr period of 1930–2006. Altogether, 240 severe-hail cases were found. The maximum reported severe-hail size was mainly 4 cm in diameter or less (65% of the cases), with the number of cases decreasing as hail size increased. In a few extreme cases, 7–8-cm (baseball sized) hailstones have been reported in Finland. Most of the severe-hail cases (84%) occurred from late June through early August, with July being the peak month (almost 66% of the cases). Most severe hail fell during the afternoon and early evening hours 1400–2000 local time (LT). Larger hailstones (4 cm or larger) tended to occur a little later (1600–2000 LT) than smaller (2–3.9 cm) hailstones (1400–1800 LT). Most severe-hail cases occurred in southern and western Finland, generally decreasing to the north, with the majority of the cases near population centers. The proportion of severe hail less than 4 cm in diameter is greatest over the agricultural area in southwestern Finland where crop damage caused by severe hail is more likely to be reported. The underreporting of hail is a particular problem across much of Finland because of the vast forest and lake areas, low population density, and relatively small hail swaths. Since the 1990s, a greater interest in severe weather among the general public and media, a storm-spotter network, improved communications technology, and an official Web site for reporting hail have increased the number of reported hail cases. According to the most recent 10 yr (1997–2006), Finland experiences an annual average of 10 severe-hail cases during 5 severe-hail days.


Related Articles

  • Increasing major hail losses in the U.S. Changnon, Stanley A. // Climatic Change;Sep2009, Vol. 96 Issue 1/2, p161 

    Property losses due to hailstorms on April 13–14, 2006, resulted in Midwestern property losses that totaled $1.822 billion, an amount considerably more than the previous record high of $1.5 billion set by an April 2001 hail event. The huge April 2006 loss was largely due to multiple...

  • Crop damage: The hail size factor. Sanchez, J.L.; Fraile, R. // Journal of Applied Meteorology;Sep96, Vol. 35 Issue 9, p1535 

    Proposes a statistical model for assessing barley and wheat crop damages caused by hailstorms in the northwestern region of Leon, Spain. Difficulties of simulated models; Method of data collection; Effect of hail size and crop maturity on damage loss; Comparison of damage resistance of wheat...

  • An overview of crop hail damage and evaluation of hail suppression efficiency in Bulgaria. Simeonov, Petio // Journal of Applied Meteorology;Sep96, Vol. 35 Issue 9, p1574 

    Ascertains the space-time distribution of the crop hail loss-to-risk ratio in Bulgaria. Relationship of hailfall characteristics and percentage of crop damage; Use of regression equation to evaluate changes in damaged areas; Impact of seeding on severity of hailstorms.

  • The July 2003 Dakota Hailswaths: Creation, Characteristics, and Possible Impacts. Parker, Matthew D.; Ratcliffe, Ian C.; Henebry, Geoffrey M. // Monthly Weather Review;May2005, Vol. 133 Issue 5, p1241 

    The authors investigate the meteorology associated with two elongated swaths of crop damage produced by severe hailstorms that crossed North Dakota and South Dakota on 4 July and 20 July 2003. These hailswaths, which were observed in a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)...

  • Analysis on a Gale Hail Strong Convective Weather in Weifang Region of Shandong. Meng YANG; Huanyi WANG; Wenbo WANG; Kedong YANG; Xin SONG; Shijie WANG // Agricultural Science & Technology;Jun2015, Vol. 16 Issue 6, p1267 

    To better study occurrence and development mechanism and characteristics of strong convective weather in Weifang, reduce the harm brought by disastrous weather, such as gale and hail, extract available forecast index for future strong convective weather forecast work in spring and summer, and...

  • X-Band Polarimetric Weather Radar Observations of a Hailstorm. Figueras i Ventura, Jordi; Honoré, Françoise; Tabary, Pierre // Journal of Atmospheric & Oceanic Technology;Sep2013, Vol. 30 Issue 9, p2143 

    This paper presents an analysis of a hail event that occurred 27 May 2012 over Brignoles, located in southeastern France. The event was observed by an X-band polarimetric radar located in Mont Maurel, 75 km northeast of the hailstorm. Lightning data from the French national network (owned and...

  • Synoptic, thermodynamic and agroeconomic aspects of severe hail events in Cyprus. Michaelides, S. C.; Savvidou, K.; Nicolaides, K. A.; Orphanou, A.; Photiou, G.; Kannaouros, C. // Natural Hazards & Earth System Sciences;2008, Vol. 8 Issue 3, p461 

    Hail is a hazardous weather element often accompanying a thunderstorm, as a result of either thermal instability or instability associated with baroclinic synoptic-scale systems (i.e. frontal depressions). Nevertheless, instability of any kind and thunderstorm activity does not always lead to...

  • Microphysics of the Rapid Development of Heavy Convective Precipitation. Zhaoxia Zeng; Yuter, Sandra E.; Houze Jr., Robert A.; Kingsmill, David E. // Monthly Weather Review;Aug2001, Vol. 129 Issue 8, p1882 

    Presents a study which examined rapid development of heavy convective precipitation observed in Alabama during the Microburst and Severe Thunderstorm project in 1986. Discussion on simple hydrometeor identification algorithm; Details on hail-producing, single-cell storm on July 20, 1986;...

  • Study of 11 September 2004 hailstorm event using radar identification of 2-D systems and 3-D cells. Ceperuelo, M.; Llasat, M. C.; López, L.; García-Ortega, E.; Sánchez, J. L. // Advances in Geosciences;2006, Vol. 7, p215 

    The most important hail event recorded in the region of the Ebro Valley (NE Spain) in 2004 was the 11 September episode. Large hailstones (some of them with a diameter of over 30 mm) caused important damages in agriculture and properties. The hail event affected an area of 3848 ha and was caused...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics