On the estimation of thermal strains developed during oxide growth

Sabau, Adrian S.; Wright, Ian G.
July 2009
Journal of Applied Physics;Jul2009, Vol. 106 Issue 2, p023503
Academic Journal
This paper presents results for the strains and stresses in oxide scales under the conditions of temperature and pressure expected in typical steam boiler operation. These conditions are radically different from those typically encountered in laboratory testing and include features such as a thermal gradient across the tube wall, significant internal (steam) pressure, and cycling of both steam temperature and pressure. Critical examination of the assumptions of flat-plate geometry, which is usually made in calculating stresses and strains in oxide scales, indicated that only the component of the hoop strain that generates stress must be reported for the cylindrical case, and that the use of simple plane-strain is adequate for the system studied. Calculations were made for alloy T22 with a hypothetical, single-layered oxide with appropriate properties. Typical conditions associated with transition of the boiler from full to partial load involve a decrease in both steam temperature and pressure, and these two sources of stress generation were found to exert opposite effects. The relative magnitudes of the resulting strains were used to explain the trends in strain levels calculated when the effects of thermal expansion, temperature loading, and pressure loading were superimposed.


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