Çocuklarda pnömokok enfeksiyonları ve aşılama

Ceyhan, Mehmet
April 2009
Cocuk Sagligi ve Hastaliklari Dergisi;nis-haz2009, Vol. 52 Issue 2, p91
Academic Journal
Pneumococcal diseases are among the major public health problems worldwide. Many children die of pneumococcal diseases annually, mostly young children in developing countries. It is the leading cause of some important invasive infections including pneumonia, meningitis and bacteremia and of some common non-invasive infections like otitis media and sinusitis. The recent development of widespread microbial resistance to essential antibiotics underlines the urgent need for efficient pneumococcal vaccines. Differences in the composition of the surrounded capsule permit serological differentiation between 91 capsular types, some of which are frequently associated with pneumococcal disease, others rarely. Vaccination is the only available tool to prevent pneumococcal disease. Although in the healthy elderly population the polysaccharide vaccine provides relatively efficient protection against invasive pneumococcal diseases, children under two years of age do not consistently develop immunity following vaccination. After extensive clinical trials, a seven- valent protein-polysaccharide conjugated vaccine has been licensed and is being used in national immunization programs in more than 20 countries, including Turkey. This vaccine is being used in routine immunization beginning at two months of age. The most effective vaccination schedule is 3 + 1 according to available data. Protective efficacy of this vaccine is about 70% to 90% against meningitis, 20% against pneumonia, and 6% against otitis media in the childhood period. There is some new data indicating a 40% reduction in otitis media incidence in the USA. Two studies from Turkey have shown a serotype coverage of about 85% to 90% in invasive isolates. After the use of conjugated vaccine, a decline in the incidence of invasive pneumococcal infections has been observed in adults due to herd immunity. Two new conjugated vaccines, one 10-valent vaccine including Haemophilus influenza D protein and one 13-valent vaccine, are under evaluation for licensure.


Related Articles

  • Varicella immunity: Does it wane in children?  // Journal of Family Practice;Jun2007, Vol. 56 Issue 6, p437 

    The article presents a cohort study which investigates whether immunity from the varicella vaccine declines over time. The data used in the study is from a surveillance project of 350,000 children in California. The proponents of the study developed regression model to determine the effect of...

  • Behaviour Profiles After Tuberculous Meningitis. Wait, J. W.; Schoeman, J. F. // Journal of Tropical Pediatrics;Jun2010, Vol. 56 Issue 3, p166 

    The purpose of the study was to investigate child behaviour in children who recovered from tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and to compare behaviour profiles of stage II and stage III patients. The mean age of the cohort of 74 children at the time of evaluation was 10 years and 7 months. At...

  • Burden of Haemophilus influenzae type b disease in Pakistani children. Zaidi, A. K. M.; Khan, H.; Sherali, A. R.; Lasi, R. // Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal;jun2010, Vol. 16 Issue 6, p460 

    Estimates of the burden of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) in children in Pakistan are limited. A prospective surveillance was set up in 8 sentinel sites in Karachi and Hyderabad in January 2004. A total of 1481 children aged < 5 years underwent lumbar puncture for suspected acute bacterial...

  • High Reliability in Respiratory Rate Assessment in Children with Respiratory Symptomatology in a Rural Area in Mozambique. Lanaspa, Miguel; Valim, Clarissa; Acacio, Sozinho; Almendinger, Katherine; Ahmad, Rushdy; Wiegand, Roger; Bassat, Quique // Journal of Tropical Pediatrics;Apr2014, Vol. 60 Issue 2, p93 

    Early recognition of severe medical conditions is often based on clinical scores and vital sign measurements such as the respiratory rate (RR) count. We designed this study to determine the reliability of RR assessment counted three times during a full minute by independent observers in children...

  • Inherent illnesses and attacks: an ethnographic study of interpretations of childhood Acute Respiratory Infections (ARIs) in Manhiça, southern Mozambique. Straus, Lianne; Munguambe, Khátia; Bassat, Quique; Machevo, Sonia; Pell, Christopher; Roca, Anna; Pool, Robert // BMC Public Health;2011, Vol. 11 Issue 1, p556 

    Background: Pneumonia is a leading cause of childhood hospitalisation and child mortality in Africa. This study explores local interpretations of Acute Respiratory Infections (ARIs), focusing on caretakers of children under five in the context of hospital care seeking. Methods: The study took...

  • Vaccinations for the Pediatric Traveler. Mackell, Sheila M. // Clinical Infectious Diseases;12/1/2003, Vol. 37 Issue 11, p1508 

    The care of the traveling child has become more complex and specialized as vaccine developments and recommendations have evolved. Differences in the pediatric immune response and the rationale for vaccine use or omission at certain ages must be considered. Protecting children from travel-related...

  • The wars of the world: Saving lives through vaccination. Kimberlin, David W. // Infectious Diseases in Children;Oct2011, Vol. 24 Issue 10, p8 

    The author reflects on the importance of safe and effective vaccines in the prevention of infectious diseases in children.

  • Achromobacter Xylosoxidans Meningitis: Case Report and Review of the Literature. Sepkowitz, Douglas V.; Bostic, Deborah E.; Maslow, Melanie J. // Clinical Pediatrics;Sep1987, Vol. 26 Issue 9, p483 

    The article focuses on the case of an infant who developed Achromobacter Xylosoxidan meningitis while hospitalized for pneumonia. Achromobacter Xylosoxidan is a motile, aerobic, nonfermenting gram-negative bacillus that produces acid from xylose and is oxidase positive. The organism was first...

  • Retrospectiva de infecciones nosocomiales en el Instituto Nacional de Pediatría 1999-2006. González-Saldaña, Napoleón; Hernández-Orozco, Hilda G.; Castañeda-Narváez, José Luis; Arzate-Barbosa, Patricia; Navarrete, Natividad; Saldaña- Maldonado, Carmen; Monroy-Díaz, Aurelia; Lucas-Resendiz, Esperanza // Acta Pediatrica de Mexico;mar/abr2008, Vol. 29 Issue 2, p253 

    Introduction. The Nosocomial Infection Committee was established in 1983 in the National Institute of Pediatrics with the purpose of assessing intrahospital infections surveillance and control, with their incidence and occurrence through the time as paramount. The Committee achived an adequate...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics