TITLE

Trends in risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Canada: temporal, socio-demographic and geographic factors

AUTHOR(S)
Lee, Douglas S.; Chiu, Maria; Manuel, Douglas G.; Tu, Karen; Xuesong Wang; Austin, Peter C.; Mattern, Michelle Y.; Mitiku, Tezeta F.; Svenson, Lawrence W.; Putnam, Wayne; Flanagan, William M.; Tu, Jack V.
PUB. DATE
August 2009
SOURCE
CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal;8/4/2009, Vol. 181 Issue 3/4, pE55
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
Background: Temporal trends in risk factors for cardiovascular disease and the impact of socio-economic status on these risk factors remain unclear. Methods: Using data from the National Population Health Survey and the Canadian Community Health Survey, we examined national trends in heart disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity and smoking prevalence from 1994 to 2005, adjusting for age and sex. We stratified data by income adequacy category, body mass index and region of residence. Results: An estimated 1.29 million Canadians reported having heart disease in 2005, representing increases of 19% for men and 2% for women, relative to 1994. Heart disease increased significantly in the lowest income category (by 27%), in the lower middle income category (by 37%) and in the upper middle income category (by 12%); however, it increased by only 6% in the highest income group. Diabetes increased in all but the highest income group: by 56% in the lowest income group, by 93% in the lower middle income group and by 59% in the upper middle income group. Hypertension increased in all income groups: by 85% in the lowest income group, by 80% in the lower middle income group, by 91% in the upper middle income group and by 117% in the highest income group. Obesity also increased in all income groups: by 20% in the lowest income group, by 25% in the lower middle income group, by 33% in the upper middle income group and by 37% in the highest income group. In addition to socio- economic status, obesity and overweight also modified the trends in risk factors. Diabetes increased to a greater extent among obese participants (61% increase) and overweight participants (25% increase), as did hypertension, which increased by 80% among obese individuals and by 74% among overweight individuals. Trends in diabetes, hypertension and obesity were consistent for all provinces. Interpretation: During the study period, heart disease, hypertension, diabetes and obesity increased for all or most income groups in Canada. Further interventions supporting modification of lifestyle and risk factors are needed to prevent future cardiovascular disease.
ACCESSION #
43397316

 

Related Articles

  • Hypertension, hyperinsulinaemia and obesity in middle-aged Finns with impaired glucose tolerance. Qiao, Q; Rajala, U; Kein�nen-Kiukaanniemi, S // Journal of Human Hypertension;Apr98, Vol. 12 Issue 4, p265 

    The aim of the study was to analyse the data obtained from a 2-year follow-up study of middle-aged Finnish subjects (n = 183) with a previous history of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in order to elucidate the longitudinal relationships between hypertension, fasting hyperinsulinaemia and...

  • Nocturnal blood pressure but not insulin resistance influences endothelial function in treated hypertensive patients. Konrad, T.; Franke, S.; Schneider, F.; Bär, F.; Vetter, G.; Winkler, K. // Journal of Human Hypertension;Jan2011, Vol. 25 Issue 1, p18 

    The impact of insulin sensitivity, casual blood pressure and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure on endothelial function was studied in treated hypertensive subjects. Flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery after reperfusion was used to determine endothelial function. Insulin sensitivity...

  • Impaired Fasting Glucose and the Risk of Hypertension in Japanese Men Between the 1980s and the 1990s. Suematsu, Chika; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Fugii, Satoru; Endo, Ginji; Tsumura, Kei; Morii, Hirotoshi // Diabetes Care;Feb99, Vol. 22 Issue 2, p228 

    Presents information on a study regarding the effect of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in increasing the risk of hypertension on Japanese cohorts during 1980 and 1990. Diagnosis of diabetes, IFG and hypertension; Biochemical measurements and clinical characteristics of the study; Result and...

  • Prevalence of unrecognized abnormal glucose tolerance in patients attending a hospital hypertension clinic. Salmasi, Abdul-Majeed; Alimo, Audrey; Dancy, Mark // American Journal of Hypertension;Jun2004, Vol. 17 Issue 6, p483 

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are not uncommonly associated with hypertension. Fasting blood glucose level is still recognized as an indicator of DM.Methods: We studied 99 consecutive patients who were not known to be diabetic patients and with no...

  • Determination of Reference Values for Elevated Fasting and Random Insulin Levels and their Associations with Metabolic Risk Factors Among Rural Pakistanis from Sindh Province. Muhammad Yakoob Ahmadani; Rubina Hakeem; Asher Fawwad; Abdul Basit; A. Samad Shera // Metabolic Syndrome & Related Disorders;Jun2008, Vol. 6 Issue 2, p143 

    AbstractAim:To assess insulin levels and their association with metabolic risk factors (family history of diabetes, abnormal glucose tolerance, hypertension, overweight and android obesity) among a representative group of Pakistan.Methods:The study data was taken from the database of a...

  • Glucose tolerance and blood pressure: long term follow up in middle aged men. Salomaa, V.V.; Strandberg, T.E.; Vanhanen, H.; Naukkarinen, V.; Sarna, S.; Miettinen, T.A. // BMJ: British Medical Journal (International Edition);3/2/91, Vol. 302 Issue 6775, p493 

    Investigates on the role of glucose tolerance in the development of hypertension in Helsinki, Finland. Analysis of the results of a health check; Invitation to primary prevention trial for cardiovascular disease.

  • Metabolic syndrome in the Mediterranean region: Current status. Anagnostis, Panagiotis // Indian Journal of Endocrinology & Metabolism;Jan2012, Vol. 16 Issue 1, p72 

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities including abdominal obesity, impaired fasting glucose, hypertension and dyslipidemia. It seems to affect about one-fourth to one-fifth of the Mediterranean population, and its prevalence increases with age, being similar for both...

  • Development of coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke in relation to fasting and 2-hour plasma glucose levels in the normal range. Feng Ning; Lei Zhang; Dekker, Jacqueline M.; Onat, Altan; Stehouwer, Coen D. A.; Yudkin, John S.; Laatikainen, Tiina; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Py�r�l�, Kalevi; Qing Qiao // Cardiovascular Diabetology;2012, Vol. 11 Issue 1, p76 

    Background: Individuals who had normoglycemia but whose 2-hour plasma glucose (2hPG) concentrations did not return to the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) have been shown to have increased cardiovascular mortality. This is further investigated...

  • Contribution of Visceral Adiposity to the Exaggerated Postprandial Lipemia of Men With Impaired Glucose Tolerance. Blackburn, Patricia; Lamarche, Benoît; Couillard, Charles; Pascot, Agnés; Tremblay, Angelo; Bergeron, Jean; Lemieux, Isabelle; Després, Jean-Pierre // Diabetes Care;Dec2003, Vol. 26 Issue 12, p3303 

    OBJECTIVE — Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) has been associated with alterations in numerous coronary heart disease risk factors, including postprandial hyperlipidemia. An excess visceral adipose tissue accumulation is also predictive of IGT and of an exaggerated postprandial lipemia....

Share

Read the Article

Courtesy of VIRGINIA BEACH PUBLIC LIBRARY AND SYSTEM

Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics