Upper-Limb Evolution and Development: Skeletons in the Closet: Congenital Anomalies and Evolution's Template

Ladd, Amy L.
July 2009
Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery, American Volume;Jul2009 Supplement 4, Vol. 91-A, p19
Academic Journal
The article focuses on the evidences to the evolutionary theories and hypothesis of congenital anomalies of the hand and upper extremities. It cited the phylogenic templates as the basis of explanation of the several hand and wrist cognates such as polydactyly and Madelung deformity. It notes that identifying the gene's role in evolution and the discovery of genetic aberrations associated with anomalies provides a clue to the normal development of the limb bud.


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