Work function engineering in low-temperature metals

Orf, Nicholas D.; Baikie, Iain D.; Shapira, Ofer; Fink, Yoel
March 2009
Applied Physics Letters;3/16/2009, Vol. 94 Issue 11, p113504
Academic Journal
Semiconductor devices require conducting electrodes with disparate work functions for their operation. Of recent interest are fluidic processing approaches for large-area devices, which present unique challenges in the identification of materials having disparate work functions but similar melting temperatures. Such materials may be engineered by alloying with low-melting temperature metals. As a demonstration, the work function of tin and four binary tin alloys is measured by ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and Kelvin probe method. We demonstrate the control of metal work function by 600 meV through alloying while keeping the melting temperature within a 140 °C range.


Related Articles

  • Laser threshold reduction in an all-spiro guest–host system. Schneider, D.; Rabe, T.; Riedl, T.; Dobbertin, T.; Kröger, M.; Becker, E.; Johannes, H.-H.; Kowalsky, W.; Weimann, T.; Wang, J.; Hinze, P. // Applied Physics Letters;9/6/2004, Vol. 85 Issue 10, p1659 

    We report on stimulated emission in an all-spiro guest–host (G–H) system. Different doping concentrations of the guest molecule 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis(2,2-diphenylvinyl)spiro-9,9′-bifluorene in the host material 2,7-bis(biphenyl-4-yl)-2′,...

  • Mechanism for ohmic contact formation of Ni/Ag contacts on p-type GaN. Ho Won Jang; Jong-Lam Lee // Applied Physics Letters;12/13/2004, Vol. 85 Issue 24, p5920 

    The mechanism for ohmic contact formation of Ni/Ag contacts on p-type GaN was investigated using synchrotron photoemission spectroscopy. A low contact resistivity of 6.6×10-5 Ω cm2 was obtained from Ni(50 Å)/Ag(1200 Å) contact after annealing at 500°C in O2 ambient. Ni...

  • Electric field penetration in Au/Nb:SrTiO3 Schottky junctions probed by bias-dependent internal photoemission. Hikita, Y.; Kawamura, M.; Bell, C.; Hwang, H. Y. // Applied Physics Letters;5/9/2011, Vol. 98 Issue 19, p192103 

    Electric field penetration into the metallic side of a Schottky junction is in principle a universal phenomenon, the magnitude of which increases with the semiconductor permittivity. Here, we quantitatively probe this effect using bias-dependent internal photoemission spectroscopy at the...

  • Electronic properties of the organic semiconductor interfaces CuPc/C60 and C60/CuPc. Molodtsova, O. V.; Knupfer, M. // Journal of Applied Physics;3/1/2006, Vol. 99 Issue 5, p053704 

    We report on the electronic properties of the organic heterointerfaces between C60 and copper phthalocyanine (CuPc), studied by means of photoemission spectroscopy and the Kelvin-probe method. We found both interfaces, CuPc/C60 and C60/CuPc, to be nonreactive with pronounced shifts of the vacuum...

  • Pentacene as protection layers of graphene on SiC surfaces. Hae-geun Jee; Jin-Hee Han; Han-Na Hwang; Bongsoo Kim; Hee-seob Kim; Young Dok Kim; Chan-Cuk Hwang // Applied Physics Letters;8/31/2009, Vol. 95 Issue 9, p093107 

    We report that pentacene can be used as a protection layer of graphene using synchrotron radiation-based photoemission spectroscopy. When pentacene was deposited on a single layer graphene, molecular states of pentacene were clearly observed, yet no change in the band structure of graphene could...

  • Mass-selected Ag3 clusters soft-landed onto MgO/Mo(100): femtosecond photoemission and first-principles simulations. Gleitsmann, T.; Vaida, M. E.; Bernhardt, T. M.; Bonačić-Koutecký, V.; Bürgel, C.; Kuznetsov, A. E.; Mitrić, R. // European Physical Journal D -- Atoms, Molecules, Clusters & Opti;Mar2008, Vol. 46 Issue 3, p477 

    The electronic structure of supported mass-selected Ag3 clusters is analyzed by joint femtosecond photoemission spectroscopy and ab initio theoretical investigations. A wide band gap insulating magnesia ultra-thin film on Mo(100) has been chosen as substrate in order to minimize the electronic...

  • Dispersion of incoherent spectral features in systems with strong electron-phonon coupling. Rösch, O.; Gunnarsson, O. // European Physical Journal B -- Condensed Matter;Jan2005, Vol. 43 Issue 1, p11 

    We study (inverse) photoemission from systems with strong coupling of doped carriers to phonons. Using an adiabatic approximation, we develop a method for calculating spectra. This method is particularly simple for systems where the electron-phonon coupling can be neglected in the initial state,...

  • Auger and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy study on Cs2Te photocathodes. di Bona, A.; Sabary, F.; Valeri, S.; Michelato, P.; Sertore, D.; Suberlucq, G. // Journal of Applied Physics;9/1/1996, Vol. 80 Issue 5, p3024 

    Presents a study which examined auger and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy on Cs[sub2]Te photocathodes. Experimental techniques; Details of the formation of Cs[sub2]Te photocathode; Conclusions.

  • New ambient pressure photoemission endstation at Advanced Light Source beamline 9.3.2. Grass, Michael E.; Karlsson, Patrik G.; Aksoy, Funda; Lundqvist, Måns; Wannberg, Björn; Mun, Bongjin S.; Hussain, Zahid; Zhi Liu // Review of Scientific Instruments;May2010, Vol. 81 Issue 5, p053106 

    During the past decade, the application of ambient pressure photoemission spectroscopy (APPES) has been recognized as an important in situ tool to study environmental and materials science, energy related science, and many other fields. Several APPES endstations are currently under planning or...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics