Prevalence and correlates of smoking among urban adult men in Bangladesh: slum versus non-slum comparison

Khan, Md. Mobarak Hossain; Khan, Aklimunnessa; Kraemer, Alexander; Mori, Mitsuru
January 2009
BMC Public Health;2009, Vol. 9 Issue 1, p1
Academic Journal
Background: Smoking is one of the leading causes of premature death particularly in developing countries. The prevalence of smoking is high among the general male population in Bangladesh. Unfortunately smoking information including correlates of smoking in the cities especially in the urban slums is very scarce, although urbanization is rapid in Bangladesh and slums are growing quickly in its major cities. Therefore this study reported prevalences of cigarette and bidi smoking and their correlates separately by urban slums and non-slums in Bangladesh. Methods: We used secondary data which was collected by the 2006 Urban Health Survey. The data were representative for the urban areas in Bangladesh. Both slums and non-slums located in the six City Corporations were considered. Slums in the cities were identified by two steps, first by using the satellite images and secondly by ground truthing. At the next stage, several clusters of households were selected by using proportional sampling. Then from each of the selected clusters, about 25 households were randomly selected. Information of a total of 12,155 adult men, aged 15- 59 years, was analyzed by stratifying them into slum (= 6,488) and non-slum (= 5,667) groups. Simple frequency, bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed using SPSS. Results: Overall smoking prevalence for the total sample was 53.6% with significantly higher prevalences among men in slums (59.8%) than non-slums (46.4%). Respondents living in slums reported a significantly (P < 0.001) higher prevalence of smoking cigarettes (53.3%) as compared to those living in non-slums (44.6%). A similar pattern was found for bidis (slums = 11.4% and nonslums = 3.2%, P < 0.001). Multivariable logistic regression revealed significantly higher odds ratio (OR) of smoking cigarettes (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.03-1.22), bidis (OR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.58-2.29) and any of the two (OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.13-1.34) among men living in slums as compared to those living in non-slums when controlled for age, division, education, marital status, religion, birth place and types of work. Division, education and types of work were the common significant correlates for both cigarette and bidi smoking in slums and non-slums by multivariable logistic regressions. Other significant correlates of smoking cigarettes were marital status (both areas), birth place (slums), and religion (non-slums). Similarly significant factors for smoking bidis were age (both areas), marital status (slums), religion (non-slums), and birth place (both areas). Conclusion: The men living in the urban slums reported higher rates of smoking cigarettes and bidis as compared to men living in the urban non-slums. Some of the significant correlates of smoking e.g. education and division should be considered for prevention activities. Our findings clearly underscore the necessity of interventions and preventions by policy makers, public health experts and other stakeholders in slums because smoking was more prevalent in the slum communities with detrimental health sequelae.


Related Articles

  • Ocupação urbana em áreas de risco de deslizamento: o caso das favelas em Campos do Jordão-SP. Filho, Artur Rosa; Caceres Cortez, Ana Tereza // Revista Geográfica;ene-jun2009, Issue 145, p31 

    In the last decades, landslides along hillsides have increased considerably, especially in under-developed countries. The gravitational movements of land masses are worsened due to the constructions of habitations on steep hillsides, and so altering the urban scenery. The general objective of...

  • An overview of the housing sector in developing countries with a focus on India's reforms. Eddu, Francis // Housing Finance International;Mar2012, Vol. 26 Issue 3, p16 

    The article presents rapid urbanization and housing in developing countries. Explored is effective management, the failure of which results to negative consequences such as the formation of slums that lack basic services and infrastructure. The role of the United Nations (UN) is discussed...

  • Comparison of a high and a low intensity smoking cessation intervention in a dentistry setting in Sweden - a randomized trial. Nohlert, Eva; Tegelberg, Åke; Tillgren, Per; Johansson, Pia; Rosenblad, Andreas; Helgason, Ásgeir R. // BMC Public Health;2009, Vol. 9 Issue 1, p1 

    Background: Tobacco is still the number one life style risk factor for ill health and premature death and also one of the major contributors to oral problems and diseases. Dentistry may be a potential setting for several aspects of clinical public health interventions and there is a growing...

  • Cigarette Smoking and the Disadvantages of Using a Fixed Ratio of FEV1/FVC to Diagnose Airway Obstruction. Hansen, James E. // Turk Toraks Dergisi / Turkish Thoracic Journal;Jun2009, Vol. 10 Issue 2, p82 

    Cigarette smoking is the primary cause of world-wide premature death. Therefore, thoracic physicians should try to inform patients of the harm smoking causes to airways and blood vessels. Unfortunately, in pursuing the goal of reducing the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, simple...

  • Smoking in the Third World. Omar, Sherif // World Health;Jul/Aug95, Vol. 48 Issue 4, p28 

    Focuses on the use of tobacco and tobacco products in developing countries. Riskiness of smoking in countries where populations are anaemic; Greater part of land under tobacco cultivation being in developing countries; Barriers which stand in the way of widespread dissemination of health...

  • The challenges facing Third World countries in banning tobacco. Muula, Adamson S. // Bulletin of the World Health Organization;2001, Vol. 79 Issue 5, p480 

    Focuses on the challenges facing developing countries in eliminating tobacco smoking. Foreign earnings from tobacco; Range of diseases that result from smoking; Reasons behind lack of awareness on harmful effects of tobacco; Diversification of agricultural crops.

  • Leptospirosis: a re-emerging infection. VKE, LIM // Malaysian Journal of Pathology;Jun2011, Vol. 33 Issue 1, p1 

    Leptospirosis is a re-emerging zoonotic infection. In developing countries large outbreaks have occurred in urban slums and following floods. Individuals from developed nations are also now more frequently exposed to the infection as a result of international travel and greater participation in...

  • Rise of the Megacity. King, Wyatt C. // Green Builder Magazine;Mar2013, Vol. 8 Issue 3, p59 

    The author reflects on the growing rate of urbanization around the world that causes a great need to sustainability. It informs that United Nations estimates that as many as 50 percent of urban dwellers in the developing world live in slums. He mentions that the cities would require new...

  • Slums, Slum Dwellers, and Health. Sclar, Elliott D.; Northridege, Mary E. // American Journal of Public Health;Sep2003, Vol. 93 Issue 9, p1381 

    The author reflects on the connection between the built environment and health in the developed and developing countries. Slums are uniformly characterized by inadequate provision of basic infrastructure and public services necessary to sustain health. Settlements in slum areas are made of...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics