Sachithanandham, J.; Ramamurthy, M.; Kannangai, R.; Daniel, H. D.; Abraham, O. C.; Rupali, P.; Pulimood, S. A.; Abraham, A. M.; Sridharan, G.
July 2009
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology;Jul2009, Vol. 27 Issue 3, p210
Academic Journal
Purpose: Opportunistic viral infections cause increased morbidity and mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals, especially those who are not on antiretroviral treatment. Early diagnosis of these opportunistic viruses will be able to reduce the risk of disease progression with appropriate intervention. Materials and Methods: Multiplex PCR was attempted to detect the opportunistic herpes viruses (HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, EBV, and CMV), adenovirus and polyoma viruses (JC and BK) in three cocktails of PCR reactions. Subsequently, all the viruses detected were quantitated by testing using monoplex real time PCR. Whole blood samples collected between 2006 and 2007 from 68 treatment naïve HIV-1 infected and 30 normal healthy individuals were tested for these eight viruses. Among the 68 HIV -1 infected individuals 35 had CD4+ T cell count less than or equal to 200 while the other 33 had greater than 200 CD4+ T cells. Results: Among the 68 HIV-1 infected individuals, 49 (72%) were positive for EBV, 5 (7%) samples were positive for CMV. All the five CMV positive individuals had CD4+ T cell count of less than or equal to 200 cells/μL. The mean EBV load among the individuals with a CD4+ T cells of less than or equal to 200 cells/μL was 3.88 log10 while among those with greater than 200 CD4+ T cells it was 3.75 log10. The mean CMV load was 6.98 log10. Three samples were positive for both CMV & EBV. None of the samples was positive for HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, Adenovirus, JC and BK viruses. Conclusions: In our study, multiplex PCR based detection system was found useful in detecting opportunistic viruses in HIV infected individuals. Though EBV is the most prevalent opportunistic viral infection among HIV infected individuals, there was no significant association between EBV load, CD4+ T cell counts and HIV-1 virus load. CMV was seen in HIV infected individuals with low CD4+ T cell counts (less than 200 cells/μL).


Related Articles

  • Multiple sclerosis after infectious mononucleosis: record linkage study. Goldacre, Michael J.; Wotton, Clare J.; Seagroatt, Valerie; Yeates, David // Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health;Dec2004, Vol. 58 Issue 12, p1032 

    Objective: To ascertain if infectious mononucleosis is a risk factor for the development of multiple sclerosis (MS); and, if it is, whether its effect is close to or remote in time from the onset of MS. Design: Analysis of database of linked abstracts of records of hospital admission and death....

  • Epstein-Barr Virus DNA Loads in Adult Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1--Infected Patients Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy. Ling, Paul D.; Vilchez, Regis A.; Keitel, Wendy A.; Poston, David G.; Rong Sheng Peng, David G.; White, Zoe S.; Visnegarwala, Fehmida; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Butel, Janet S. // Clinical Infectious Diseases;11/1/2003, Vol. 37 Issue 9, p1244 

    Patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection are at high risk of developing Epstein­Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoma. However, little is known of the EBV DNA loads in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Using a real-time quantitative...

  • Epstein-Barr Virus-Infected Malignant T/NK-Cell Lymphoma in a Patient with Hypersensitivity to Mosquito Bites. Kase, Satoru; Adachi, Hironobu; Osaki, Mitsuhiko; Murakami, Masanao; Sairenji, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Kiyoshi; Teramoto, Hidemi; Yamamoto, Shisei; Makino, Haruhiko; Shimizu, Eiji; Watanabe, Tessin; Ohsawa, Tokuya; Hagari, Yoshitaka; Mihara, Motoyuki; Ito, Hisao // International Journal of Surgical Pathology;Jul2004, Vol. 12 Issue 3, p265 

    Studies Epstein-Barr virus-infected malignant T/NK-cell lymphoma in a patient with hypersensitivity to mosquito bites by researchers from Japan. Presentation of a multiple confluent lymphoma lesions in the lung; Presence of a large number of lymphoma cells in the left pleura; Use of...

  • Revisiting the Effect of Acute P. falciparum Malaria on Epstein-Barr Virus: Host Balance in the Setting of Reduced Malaria Endemicity. Jayasooriya, Shamanthi; Hislop, Andrew; Peng, Yanchun; Croom-carter, Debbie; Jankey, Ya; Bell, Andrew; Dong, Tao; Rowland-Jones, Sarah; Rickinson, Alan; Walther, Michael; Whittle, Hilton // PLoS ONE;Feb2012, Vol. 7 Issue 2, p1 

    Burkitt's lymphoma (BL), an EBV-associated tumour, occurs at high incidence in populations where malaria is holoendemic. Previous studies in one such population suggested that acute P.falciparum infection impairs EBV-specific T-cell surveillance, allowing expansion of EBV infected B-cells from...

  • Fluctuations of Epstein-Barr Virus Serological Antibodies and Risk for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: A Prospective Screening Study with a 20-Year Follow-Up. Su-Mei Cao; Zhiwei Liu; Wei-Hua Jia; Qi-Hong Huang; Qing Liu; Xiang Guo54; Teng-Bo Huang; Weimin Ye; Ming-Huang Hong // PLoS ONE;2011, Vol. 6 Issue 4, p1 

    Background: The impact of variation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibody titers before the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is still unclear. We analyzed the fluctuations of antibodies against EBV before histopathological diagnosis to assess the risk of NPC and aimed to provide a...

  • Detection of Viral DNA in Kidney Graft Preservation and Washing Solutions Is Predictive of Posttransplant Infections in Pediatric Recipients. Barzon, Luisa; Murer, Luisa; Pacenti, Monia; Biasolo, Maria Angela; Vella, Manuela Della; Ghirardo, Giulia; Gamba, Pier Giorgio; de Arias, Alejandro Espadas; Zanon, Giovanni Franco; Palù, Giorgio // Journal of Infectious Diseases;11/1/2009, Vol. 200 Issue 9, p1425 

    Background. In pediatric kidney transplant recipients, viral infections occur soon after transplant and may be transmitted from the graft. Methods. This study of 75 pediatric kidney transplants investigated whether genome sequences of parvovirus B19, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human...

  • Environmental Influencers, MicroRNA, and Multiple Sclerosis. Mohammed, Eiman MA // Journal of Central Nervous System Disease;1/20/2020, Vol. 12, pN.PAG 

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex neurological disorder characterized by an aberrant immune system that affects patients' quality of life. Several environmental factors have previously been proposed to associate with MS pathophysiology, including vitamin D deficiency, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)...

  • Genital Epstein Barr Virus is associated with higher prevalence and persistence of anal human papillomavirus in HIV-infected men on antiretroviral therapy. Gianella, Sara; Ginocchio, Christine C.; Daar, Eric S.; Dube, Michael P.; Morris, Sheldon R. // BMC Infectious Diseases;1/25/2016, p1 

    Background: Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) can co-exist in pharyngeal and cervical malignancies. However, the natural history and factors associated with persistent HPV infection among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) are unclear.Methods:...

  • Investigation of Primary Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Patients Who Test Positive for Heterophile Antibody. Walensky, Rochelle P.; Rosenberg, Eric S.; Ferraro, Mary Jane; Losina, Elena; Walker, Bruce D.; Freedberg, Kenneth A. // Clinical Infectious Diseases;8/15/2001, Vol. 33 Issue 4, p570 

    In light of a recent report of 3 false-positive results of Epstein-Barr virus heterophile tests caused by HIV infection, we sought to assess the frequency of this occurrence. One hundred thirty-two positive heterophile antibody-tested serum samples were obtained from 2 tertiary care facilities...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics