Linear and Non-Linear Dose-Response Functions Reveal A Hormetic Relationship Between Stress and Learning

Zoladz, Phillip R.; Diamond, David M.
April 2009
Dose-Response;2009, Vol. 7 Issue 2, p132
Academic Journal
Over a century of behavioral research has shown that stress can enhance or impair learning and memory. In the present review, we have explored the complex effects of stress on cognition and propose that they are characterized by linear and non-linear doseresponse functions, which together reveal a hormetic relationship between stress and learning. We suggest that stress initially enhances hippocampal function, resulting from amygdala-induced excitation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity, as well as the excitatory effects of several neuromodulators, including corticosteroids, norepinephrine, corticotropin-releasing hormone, acetylcholine and dopamine. We propose that this rapid activation of the amygdala-hippocampus brain memory system results in a linear doseresponse relation between emotional strength and memory formation. More prolonged stress, however, leads to an inhibition of hippocampal function, which can be attributed to compensatory cellular responses that protect hippocampal neurons from excitotoxicity. This inhibition of hippocampal functioning in response to prolonged stress is potentially relevant to the well-described curvilinear dose-response relationship between arousal and memory. Our emphasis on the temporal features of stress-brain interactions addresses how stress can activate, as well as impair, hippocampal functioning to produce a hormetic relationship between stress and learning.


Related Articles

  • The Stimulatory Effects of Topical Application of Radioactive Lantern Mantle Powder on wound Healing. Mortazavi, S. M. J.; Rahmani, M. R.; Rahnama, A.; Saeed-Pour, A.; Nouri, E.; Hosseini, N.; Aghaiee, M. M. // Dose-Response;2009, Vol. 7 Issue 2, p149 

    Some people in different parts of Iran use burned mantles as a wound healing medicine. To perform surface area measurement, twenty rats were divided randomly into two groups of 10 animals each. The 1st group received topical burned radioactive lantern mantle powder at 1st-3rd day after making...

  • The Traditional Toxicologic Paradigm is Correct: Dose Influences Mechanism. Goodman, Jay I.; Calabrese, Edward J. // Environmental Health Perspectives Supplements;Feb98 Supplement 1, Vol. 106, p285 

    Focuses on the concept that dose influences mechanism and its importance with regard to utilizing mode of action information to take a rational approach toward carcinogen risk assessment.

  • The impact of excess heat events in Maricopa County, Arizona: 2000–2005. W. Flanders; Amy Wolkin; David Engelthaler; William Humble; Antonio Neri; Lauren Lewis; Lorraine Backer; Carol Rubin // International Journal of Biometeorology;Nov2008, Vol. 52 Issue 8, p765 

    Abstract  Exposure to excess heat is preventable yet it is the primary weather-related cause of mortality in the United States. In the Southwest United States, high temperatures are common and indoor environments often have cooling devices. In summer 2005, Maricopa County,...

  • Robust trend tests with application to toxicology. Neuhäuser, Markus; Seidel, Dirk; Hothorn, Ludwig A.; Urfer, Wolfgang // Environmental & Ecological Statistics;Mar2000, Vol. 7 Issue 1, p43 

    In most real data situations in the one-way design both the underlying distribution and the shape of the dose-response curve are a priori unknown. The power of a trend test strongly depends on both. However, tests which are routinely used to analyze toxicological assays must be robust. We use...

  • Hormesis on life-history traits: is there such thing as a free lunch? Jager, Tjalling; Barsi, Alpar; Ducrot, Virginie // Ecotoxicology;Mar2013, Vol. 22 Issue 2, p263 

    The term 'hormesis' is used to describe dose-response relationships where the response is reversed between low and high doses of a stressor (generally, stimulation at low doses and inhibition at high ones). A mechanistic explanation is needed to interpret the relevance of such responses, but...

  • Changes in the Dose–Response Relationship of One Toxicant Under Simultaneous Exposure to Another Toxicant. Katsnelson, B. A.; Panov, V. G.; Varaksin, A. N.; Minigalieva, I. A.; Privalova, L. I.; Sutunkova, M. P. // Dose-Response;Oct-Dec2016, Vol. 14 Issue 4, p1 

    We considered, in general form for a 22 full factorial experiment, linear approximations of the organism’s dose–response relationship for some factors operating alone and modification of this relationship by another factor operating in the background. A typological classification...

  • Study ties stress to forgetting.  // Telegraph (Calcutta, India);4/24/2013, p1 

    The article discusses a study led by neurobiologist Sumantra Chattarji, to be published in April 2013 in the "Journal of Neuroscience," about how chronic stress affects the brain's processing of factual memories. Topics covered include the shrinking of the hippocampus, the enlargement of the...


    Stressful experiences are known to either improve or impair hippocampal-dependent memory tasks and synaptic plasticity. These positive and negative effects of stress on the hippocampus have been largely documented, however little is known about the mechanism involved in the twofold influence of...

  • Quantification of Hormesis in Anticancer-Agent Dose-Responses. Nascarella, Marc A.; Stanek III, Edward J.; Hoffmann, George R.; Calabrese, Edward J. // Dose-Response;2009, Vol. 7 Issue 2, p160 

    Quantitative features of dose responses were analyzed for 2,189 candidate anticancer agents in 13 strains of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The agents represent a diverse class of chemical compounds including mustards, other alkylating agents, and antimetabolites, inter alia. Previous...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics