Increasing diffraction efficiency by heating phase gratings formed by femtosecond laser irradiation in poly(methyl methacrylate)

Hirono, Satoshi; Kasuya, Makoto; Matsuda, Katsumi; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Itoh, Kazuyoshi; Mochizuki, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Wataru
June 2009
Applied Physics Letters;6/15/2009, Vol. 94 Issue 24, p241122
Academic Journal
The diffraction efficiency of phase gratings formed by femtosecond laser irradiation in poly(methyl methacrylate) was increased by more than an order of magnitude by subsequent heating below the glass transition temperature (Tg). The first-order Bragg diffraction efficiency of a 10 μm period grating was 1.9% without heating, whereas it increased to 72% when heated at 70 °C for 500 h. This is because the induced refractive index changes (Δn) were increased by heating. From the Lorentz–Lorenz equation, one of the reasons why Δn increases by heating could be a slight volume contraction in the irradiated area.


Related Articles

  • Thermal stability of refractive index of polymethylmethacrylate layers prepared under electrical field. O. Lyutakov; I. Huttel; V. Švor?ík // Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics;Apr2007, Vol. 18 Issue 4, p457 

    Abstract?? Thin films of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) were prepared by spin-coating with and without assistance of electrical field. Refractive index of the films was studied as a function of PMMA molecular weight and the time of specimen aging proceeding at different temperatures. The PMMA...

  • Investigation of Thermo-mechanical Properties of PMMA. Agrawal, Sonalika; Patidar, Dinesh; Dixit, Manasvi; Sharma, Kananbala; Saxena, N. S. // AIP Conference Proceedings;6/29/2010, Vol. 1249 Issue 1, p79 

    The present paper reports the investigation of thermo-mechanical properties of Poly(methyl methacrylate) or PMMA. The film of PMMA has been prepared by solution casting method taking tetrahydrofuran (THF) as solvent. So prepared film has been used for the measurement of mechanical properties...

  • Synthesis and characterization of Cu(II) containing PMMA co-polymer for optical applications. Rojas, Omar; Araya, Miguel; Montero, Mavis; Azofeifa, Daniel; Vargas, William // Journal of Materials Science;May2007, Vol. 42 Issue 9, p3161 

    Homogenous, transparent, greenish blue Cu(II) containing PMMA co-polymer disks were prepared through the radical polymerization of the Cu(II) methacrylate, MMA and HMA using AIBN as an initiator. The dependence of the absorbance and transmittance spectra with the Cu(II) methacrylate...

  • Thickness dependence of refractive index and optical gap of PMMA layers prepared under electrical field. Švorčík, V.; Lyutakov, O.; Huttel, I. // Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics;Apr2008, Vol. 19 Issue 4, p363 

    Optical parameters (refractive index, dispersion energy, optical gap) of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) layers prepared by spin coating and modified by electric field have been studied. Refractive index was measured using a refractometer, internal structure was investigated as a structural...

  • Copolymerization of 4-cyanophenyl acrylate with methyl methacrylate: synthesis, characterization and determination of monomer reactivity ratios. Vijayanand, P. S.; Kato, S.; Satokawa, S.; Kojima, T. // Journal of Polymer Research;Jun2009, Vol. 16 Issue 3, p301 

    A novel acrylic monomer, 4-cyanophenyl acrylate (CPA) was synthesized by reacting 4-cyanophenol dissolved in methyl ethyl ketone with acryloyl chloride in the presence of triethylamine as a catalyst. Copolymers of CPA with methyl methacrylate (MMA) at different composition was prepared by free...

  • Fabrication of molecular-electronic circuits by nanoimprint lithography at low temperatures and pressures. G. Y. Jung, T. G.; Ganapathiappan, S.; X. Li; Ohlberg, D. A. A.; Olynick, D. L.; Chen, Y.; W. M. Tong, Y.; Williams, R. S. // Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing;2004, Vol. 78 Issue 8, p1169 

    We have utilized a modified version of thermal nanoimprint lithography to fabricate a rewritable, nonvolatile, molecular memory device with a density of 6.4 Gbit/cm[sup 2]. It has the advantages of a relatively low operating temperature of (~70 �C) and pressure of (<500 psi or 4.5 MPa),...

  • Glass transition temperatures of isotactic poly(methymethacrylate) thin films and individual chains probed by multi wavelength ellipsometry. El Ouakili, A.; Vignaud, G.; Balnois, E.; Bardeau, J.-F.; Grohens, Y. // European Physical Journal - Applied Physics;Oct2011, Vol. 56 Issue 1, pN.PAG 

    Ellipsometry is used as a technique to determine glass temperature transitions of isotactic Poly(methyl methacrylate) (iPMMA) ultra-thin films and isolated chains deposited on a silicon wafer surface. The importance of systematically probing the samples at different wavelengths is pointed out in...

  • Dielectric and Thermal Behavior of Ethyl and Butyl Methacrylate and N-p-cyano-phenyl Maleimide Copolymers. Elsabee, M.; Bamezai, R.; Hempel, E.; Kresse, H. // Journal of Polymer Research;Feb2005, Vol. 12 Issue 1, p61 

    N-p-Cyano-phenyl maleimide PCPMI was prepared and copolymerized with ethyl and butyl methacrylate in order to study the effect of introducing a strong dipole along the polymer backbone. The copolymer composition was determined by elemental analysis and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The molecular mass of...

  • EFFECT ON STRUCTURAL RELAXATION OF THE POLY(METHYL-METHACRYLATE) COPOLYMERS CHAIN FLEXIBILITY. Penco, M.; Spagnoli, G.; Sciucca, S. Della; Samperi, F.; Mendichi, R. // AIP Conference Proceedings;9/1/2008, Vol. 1042 Issue 1, p291 

    The structural relaxation of PMMA copolymers with different chain flexibility has been studied by DSC with two classical procedures, namely: the rate of cooling and the isothermal approaches. The apparent activation energy of enthalpy relaxation was evaluated from the dependence of the glass...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics