TITLE

Development of an analytical procedure for the determination of emerging and priority organic pollutants in leafy vegetables by pressurized solvent extraction followed by GC–MS determination

AUTHOR(S)
Calderón-Preciado, Diana; Jiménez-Cartagena, Claudio; Peñuela, Gustavo; Bayona, Josep Maria
PUB. DATE
July 2009
SOURCE
Analytical & Bioanalytical Chemistry;Jul2009, Vol. 394 Issue 5, p1319
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
A new multiresidue method for the determination of 13 emerging and priority pollutants in lettuce, including pesticides, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and phenolic estrogens, has been developed using matrix solid-phase dispersion combined to pressurized fluid extraction (PFE) followed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry determination. A sequential optimization strategy based on solvent optimization first, followed by experimental design, was performed in order to maximize target analyte extraction with the aid of response surface methodology. Firstly, a full factorial design was applied to choose the significant variables in PFE; extraction time and temperature were found to have the biggest overall effect on response for most of analytes. They were later optimized performing a central composite design and the variable response of these factors was modeled for all analytes. It was found that marked differences in physicochemical nature exerted a strong influence on extraction conditions and yield. Therefore, the effect of parameters on the response was rather different for some compounds. To overcome this conflicting behavior, a multiple response simultaneous optimization was applied using the desirability function to achieve global optimal operating conditions. The optimal conditions were attained at 13.5 min (two extraction cycles) and 104 °C in the PFE by using hexane acetone mixture (1:1). Limit of detection and limit of quantitation values were found to be between 6.6 and 58 and 7.6 and 61.7 μg kg−1, respectively.
ACCESSION #
41328808

 

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