Changes in leucocyte counts and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin during cardiopulmonary bypass in children

Williams, H.J.; Rebuck, N.; Elliott, M.J.; Finn, A.
September 1998
Perfusion;1998, Vol. 13 Issue 5, p322
Academic Journal
A consequence of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in young children is postoperative capillary leak and associated pulmonary dysfunction. Neutrophils sequester in the lungs and may contribute to functional endothelial damage. The endothelial adhesion molecules, E-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), mediate sequential steps in adhesion by binding to leucocyte ligands. Circulating forms of these proteins have been identified. We studied changes in the plasma concentrations of soluble E-selectin and soluble ICAM-1 using fixed phase immunoassays, and associated leucocyte counts in 10 paediatric patients undergoing CPB. Concentrations of soluble L-selectin and soluble ICAM-1 consistently fell during CPB from preoperative levels of 89 ± 17 ng/ml (mean ± 2SEM) and 218 + 61 ng/ml, respectively, to 39 ± 7 ng/ml and 84 ± 24 ng/ml, respectively at the beginning of maximum hypothermia. The haemodilution that occurred during CPB largely explained this fall, but not the more marked decrease in white cell counts that also occurred over this period (6.7 ± 1.1 to 1. 7 × 0.5 × 109/l) which may reflect increased leucocyte sequestration. By 24 h postoperatively, levels of both soluble adhesion molecules approached preoperative concentrations, as did lymphocyte counts. In marked contrast, neutrophil counts rose appreciably towards the end of CPB, and continued to rise to a maximum of 10.9 ± 3.1 ×109/l during the immediate postoperative period and remained at these elevated levels 24 h later. Major consistent changes in circulating leucocyte numbers which occur early in cardiopulmonary bypass may reflect changes in adhesion to the endothelium and consequent sequestration. Alterations in the levels of soluble adhesion proteins may influence these processes.


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