Total extrathoracic cardiopulmonary support with kinetic assisted venous drainage: experience in 50 patients

Toomasian, J.M.; McCarthy, J.P.
March 1998
Perfusion;1998, Vol. 13 Issue 2, p137
Academic Journal
Extrathoracic cardiopulmonary bypass is used in special situations when normal access to the right atrium and aorta is difficult or not practicable. Femero-femoral bypass using gravity drainage is effective for partial cardiopulmonary support, but cannot usually provide adequate venous drainage for full circulatory support. Kinetic assisted venous drainage (KAVD) is the process of applying a controlled suction on the venous line with a kinetic pump to augment venous drainage. KAVD has been used in 50 patients where femero-femoral bypass was selected as the mode of circulatory support. These cases included: redo-operations with significant sternal adhesions (15), minimally invasive port-access cardiac surgery (12), haemodynamic instability (10), left thoracotomy (10), and others (3). In 11 cases, a second venous catheter was added because of protocol. No appreciable increase in venous return occurred with the addition of a second drainage catheter. All patients were adequately supported and a 20-40% increase in venous return was observed once KAVD was implemented. A wide variety of different venous catheters have been used with KAVD. Optimal use relates to having a thin-walled catheter with multiple side holes, not exerting an excessive negative pressure with the pump and positioning the catheter tip at the right atrio-superior vena cava junction. Optimal catheter tip placement is enhanced by using transoesophageal echocardiography. KAVD is best regulated by measuring the siphon generated by the kinetic pump. When the inlet pressure is properly monitored and controlled, KAVD can provide adequate venous drainage to completely support the circulation on a single femoral venous cannula.


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