TITLE

Quasisteady and steady states in global gyrokinetic particle-in-cell simulations

AUTHOR(S)
Jolliet, S.; McMillan, B. F.; Vernay, T.; Villard, L.; Bottino, A.; Angelino, P.
PUB. DATE
May 2009
SOURCE
Physics of Plasmas;May2009, Vol. 16 Issue 5, p052307
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
Collisionless delta-f gyrokinetic particle-in-cell simulations suffer from the entropy paradox, in which the entropy grows linearly in time while low-order moments are saturated. As a consequence, these simulations do not reach a steady state and are unsuited to make quantitative predictions. A solution to this issue is the introduction of artificial dissipation. The notion of steady state in gyrokinetic simulations is studied by deriving an evolution equation for the fluctuation entropy and applying it to the global collisionless particle-in-cell code ORB5 [S. Jolliet et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 177, 409 (2007)]. It is shown that a recently implemented noise-control algorithm [B. F. McMillan et al., Phys. Plasmas 15, 052308 (2008)] based on a W-stat provides the necessary dissipation to reach a steady state. The two interesting situations of decaying and driven turbulence are considered. In addition, it is shown that a separate heating algorithm, not based on a W-stat, does not lead to a statistical steady state.
ACCESSION #
40637835

 

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