TITLE

Upward-Influence Styles: Relationship with Performance Evaluations, Salary, and Stress

AUTHOR(S)
Kipnis, David; Schmidt, Stuart M.
PUB. DATE
December 1988
SOURCE
Administrative Science Quarterly;Dec88, Vol. 33 Issue 4, p528
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
Three studies explored the relationship between participants using different styles of upward influence in formal organizations and their performance evaluations, salaries, and reported stress. In studies of workers, supervisors, and chief executive officers, the following four upward-influence styles were identified through cluster analysis: Shotgun, Tactician, Ingratiator, and Bystander. Male sub-ordinates using a Shotgun style of upward influence were evaluated less favorably by their superiors, earned less, and reported more job tension and personal stress than Tactician subordinates. There was evidence that gender moderated the relation between subordinates' upward-influence styles and superiors' evaluation of their performances.
ACCESSION #
4010204

 

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