Study of the effect of dielectric porosity on the stress in advanced Cu/low-k interconnects using x-ray diffraction

Wilson, C. J.; Zhao, C.; Zhao, L.; Metzger, T. H.; Tőkei, Zs.; Croes, K.; Pantouvaki, M.; Beyer, G. P.; Horsfall, A. B.; O'Neill, A. G.
May 2009
Applied Physics Letters;5/4/2009, Vol. 94 Issue 18, p181914
Academic Journal
High intensity x-rays at an advanced light facility were used to probe the strained atomic spacing of Cu interconnects embedded in ultralow-k dielectrics of different porosities. The assumption that the strain-free atomic spacing of a thin film can be extrapolated from a relationship based on the material stiffness coefficients used in literature is tested and demonstrated experimentally using a series of blanket wafers. This is used to calculate the stress of 100 nm interconnects. High porosity materials show in-plane relaxation reducing the stress. The air gap architecture is shown to provide little constraint with the lowest Cu stress.


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