The Influence of Gender-role Socialization, Media Use and Sports Participation on Perceptions of Gender-Appropriate Sports

Hardin, Marie; Greer, Jennifer D.
June 2009
Journal of Sport Behavior;Jun2009, Vol. 32 Issue 2, p207
Academic Journal
This study seeks to update understanding of how sports in U.S. society are viewed in light of gender norms. A survey of 340 college students found that even youth who have grown up with Title IX still rate most sports as masculine, including the newer action sports even though these sports incorporate elements considered generally feminine. The study also examined the relationship between media use, sports participation, and gender role socialization with the typing of sports as masculine or feminine; although these factors seemed to impact typing for some sports by degrees, overall findings suggest that traditional gender-typing of sports is resilient. Using Bandura's (1986) social learning theory, the authors suggest that until mediated images are more inclusive of women in a variety of sports, rising participation rates by women in sports and fitness activities will do little to change traditional gender-typing.


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