TITLE

Sub-involution of Placental Site After First Trimester Miscarriage: Sonographic Appearances and A New Approach to Management

AUTHOR(S)
Arora, Suruchi; Williams, Roger M.; Torrie, Peter; Gibson, M.; Musa, Fawaz
PUB. DATE
May 2009
SOURCE
Ultrasound;May2009, Vol. 17 Issue 2, p103
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
Delayed postpartum bleeding can be caused by retained products of conception (RPOC), secondary infection, or more unusually, by sub-involution of placental site. Sub-involution of placental site is suspected when there is delayed onset, abrupt and heavy uterine bleeding in the absence of RPOC following a delivery or miscarriage. It is a histologic diagnosis and imaging and other investigations have not been reported to help in diagnosing this condition. We report the sonographic findings in a patient who was later diagnosed, histologically, to have placental site sub-involution. Also, we report a new approach to managing the condition by embolising the uterine arteries before undertaking evacuation of uterus.</div> </div> <div class="clear"></div> <div class="labels"> <div class="label-title">ACCESSION #</div> <div class="desc">38030495</div> </div> <p> </p> <div id="second-cta"> <a href="http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&authtype=cookie&db=8gh&db=asx&db=b9h&db=bsh&db=bsx&db=bwh&db=ddu&db=e020mna&db=edb&db=edo&db=edsaac&db=edsaah&db=edsace&db=edsaed&db=edsafa&db=edsaho&db=edsaih&db=edsair&db=edsaks&db=edsalm&db=edsamb&db=edsamh&db=edsaml&db=edsamo&db=edsamw&db=edsarb&db=edsarc&db=edsard&db=edsare&db=edsatl&db=edsatm&db=edsaul&db=edsaup&db=edsavd&db=edsbao&db=edsbas&db=edsbbp&db=edsbbt&db=edsbeb&db=edsbhl&db=edsblc&db=edsbme&db=edsboj&db=edsbps&db=edsbrw&db=edsbzt&db=edscan&db=edscao&db=edscau&db=edscbp&db=edsccr&db=edscdp&db=edscel&db=edscgd&db=edscgf&db=edscha&db=edschs&db=edsclc&db=edsclk&db=edsclt&db=edscnl&db=edscoj&db=edscpi&db=edscra&db=edscrc&db=edscri&db=edscro&db=edscvd&db=edsdar&db=edsdeh&db=edsdeo&db=edsdfl&db=edsdlc&db=edsdmo&db=edsdnt&db=edsdnz&db=edsdom&db=edsdpi&db=edsear&db=edsebr&db=edsecl&db=edseco&db=edseds&db=edseee&db=edsehd&db=edselb&db=edseli&db=edselr&db=edsely&db=edsemm&db=edsemr&db=edseou&db=edserd&db=edseti&db=edseub&db=edseul&db=edseur&db=edsewc&db=edsfis&db=edsfit&db=edsfod&db=edsfrc&db=edsgal&db=edsgbc&db=edsgea&db=edsgec&db=edsggo&db=edsggr&db=edsgij&db=edsgit&db=edsglr&db=edsgml&db=edsgmw&db=edsgnc&db=edsgov&db=edsgrw&db=edsgsb&db=edsgtd&db=edsgtx&db=edsgvr&db=edsgwp&db=edshar&db=edshbo&db=edshla&db=edshrc&db=edshsd&db=edshui&db=edshwr&db=edsiad&db=edsiag&db=edsiap&db=edsibo&db=edsibw&db=edside&db=edsidm&db=edsimf&db=edsimi&db=edsint&db=edsinv&db=edsipa&db=edsipl&db=edsipr&db=edsjoj&db=edsjov&db=edskan&db=edskbr&db=edskdg&db=edsker&db=edskig&db=edsknv&db=edskot&db=edskrm&db=edskrp&db=edskst&db=edslao&db=edslap&db=edslco&db=edslea&db=edsled&db=edsley&db=edslmc&db=edsloc&db=edslrl&db=edslrn&db=edslxp&db=edsmai&db=edsmbr&db=edsmep&db=edsmfo&db=edsmgd&db=edsmgo&db=edsmib&db=edsmid&db=edsmkl&db=edsmmd&db=edsmob&db=edsmoe&db=edsmoj&db=edsmtl&db=edsmwo&db=edsnan&db=edsnas&db=edsnbk&db=edsnbu&db=edsndl&db=edsngv&db=edsnik&db=edsnop&db=edsnor&db=edsnot&db=edsnsm&db=edsnuk&db=edsnum&db=edsnup&db=edsnvl&db=edsnzc&db=edsoai&db=edsocl&db=edsocp&db=edsoec&db=edsohw&db=edsoic&db=edsojs&db=edsonp&db=edsopl&db=edsorb&db=edsorl&db=edsotl&db=edsotz&db=edsovi&db=edsoxf&db=edspdq&db=edspeb&db=edspej&db=edspes&db=edspga&db=edspia&db=edspor&db=edspsn&db=edspso&db=edspsr&db=edspsy&db=edspub&db=edsrem&db=edsrep&db=edsret&db=edsrho&db=edsric&db=edsrom&db=edsrsa&db=edsrts&db=edsrxt&db=edssac&db=edssbi&db=edssbr&db=edsscb&db=edssch&db=edssco&db=edsshm&db=edsshv&db=edsskl&db=edssks&db=edssmd&db=edssol&db=edssta&db=edsstb&db=edsstc&db=edsstg&db=edsstp&db=edssun&db=edssvk&db=edssvl&db=edsswf&db=edsswo&db=edsthw&db=edstor&db=edstox&db=edstoy&db=edstvn&db=edstwa&db=edsucd&db=edsupo&db=edsvbu&db=edsver&db=edsvle&db=edsvlx&db=edsvsi&db=edswao&db=edswbe&db=edswbu&db=edswcl&db=edswcu&db=edswdc&db=edswwo&db=edszac&db=edszad&db=edszae&db=edszan&db=edszap&db=eoah&db=ers&db=f5h&db=kdh&db=kfh&db=neh&db=nlebk&db=nsm&bquery=%28%28SU+%22DIAGNOSIS+of+placenta+diseases%22%29+OR+%28SU+%22PREGNANCY+complications+--+Diagnosis%22%29%29+AND+%28FT+Y%29&type=0&site=ehost-live&scope=site"><img src="/sites/all/themes/ehc/images/citation-cta.png" /></a> </div> </div> <!-- end #reader-info --> </div> <!-- end #reader-wrap --> <h2>Related Articles</h2><ul><li><a href="/c/articles/110935131/options-early-pregnancy-loss">Options for early pregnancy loss.</a> LOCKWOOD, CHARLES J. // Contemporary OB/GYN;Nov2015, Vol. 60 Issue 11, p40 <p style="color:#666;font-size:90%;">A review of the article Early Pregnancy Loss by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, which appeared in the medical journal Obstetrics and Gynecology in May 2015, is presented.</p></li><li><a href="/c/reference-entries/44001267/threatened-miscarriage">threatened miscarriage.</a> Peters, Michael // BMA A-Z Family Medical Encyclopedia;2004, p741 <p style="color:#666;font-size:90%;">An encyclopedia entry for "threatened miscarriage" is presented. Threatened miscarriage pertains to warning signs that a pregnancy may be about to expire before full term. Bleeding takes place from the vagina even if the cervix remains intact and the fetus is still in the uterus. Administering...</p></li><li><a href="/c/case-studies/59857824/heterotopic-pregnancy-case-report">Heterotopic Pregnancy- Case Report.</a> Jahan, S.; Das, Tr; Akter, L. // Journal of Bangladesh College of Physicians & Surgeons;Jan2011, Vol. 29 Issue 1, p44 <p style="color:#666;font-size:90%;">The article presents a case study of a multigravid woman, with complaints of severe lower abdominal pain, positive pregnancy test, and five weeks amenorrhea. She was diagnosed of having heterotopic pregnancy, wherein an intrauterine, and ectopic pregnancy co-exist. It concludes that there are...</p></li><li><a href="/c/letters/59259637/rudimentary-horn-pregnancy-some-points-review">Rudimentary-horn pregnancy: some points to review.</a> Siristatidis, Charalampos; Chrelias, Charalampos; Kassanos, Dimitrios // Archives of Gynecology & Obstetrics;Apr2011, Vol. 283 Issue 4, p917 <p style="color:#666;font-size:90%;">No abstract available.</p></li><li><a href="/c/case-studies/111391798/gist-pregnancy-rare-case-hematemesis">GIST in Pregnancy: A Rare Case of Hematemesis.</a> D'Almeida, Joylene; Cunha, Prema D. // Indian Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology;Jul-Dec2015, Vol. 3 Issue 2, p102 <p style="color:#666;font-size:90%;">Gastric cancers are very rare in pregnancy and are often undiagnosed due to lack of referral of symptomatic patients to speciality centres from the peripheral units. Though the general outcomes are poor, a favourable prognosis can be ensured with early diagnosis and curative therapy. All that is...</p></li><li><a href="/c/articles/95819404/accuracy-ultrasonography-magnetic-resonance-imaging-diagnosis-placenta-accreta">Accuracy of Ultrasonography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Diagnosis of Placenta Accreta.</a> Riteau, Anne-Sophie; Tassin, Mikael; Chambon, Guillemette; Le Vaillant, Claudine; de Laveaucoupet, Jocelyne; Quéré, Marie-Pierre; Joubert, Madeleine; Prevot, Sophie; Philippe, Henri-Jean; Benachi, Alexandra // PLoS ONE;Apr2014, Vol. 9 Issue 4, p1 <p style="color:#666;font-size:90%;">Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of placenta accreta and to define the most relevant specific ultrasound and MRI features that may predict placental invasion. Material and Methods: This study was approved by the...</p></li><li><a href="/c/articles/4848190/influence-past-reproductive-performance-risk-spontaneous-abortion">Influence of past reproductive performance on risk of spontaneous abortion.</a> Regan, Lesley; Braude, Peter R.; Trembath, Paula L. // BMJ: British Medical Journal (International Edition);8/26/89, Vol. 298 Issue 6698, p541 <p style="color:#666;font-size:90%;">Investigates the incidence of spontaneous abortion in a population of women in establishing risks of abortion and obstetric factors. Use of abdominal ultrasonography for the assessment of pregnancy; Evaluation of obstetric history of the patient; Complication of pregnancy.</p></li><li><a href="/c/case-studies/111894265/cesarean-scar-pregnancy-diagnosis-management">Cesarean scar pregnancy diagnosis and management.</a> TIMOR-TRITSCH, ILAN E.; MONTEAGUDO, ANA; KAELIN AGTEN, ANDREA // Contemporary OB/GYN;Dec2015, Vol. 60 Issue 12, p16 <p style="color:#666;font-size:90%;">The article describes the case of a 27-year-old woman with one previous cesarean delivery who was admitted for vaginal bleeding from an outpatient facility. Topics mentioned include results of a transabdominal ultrasound scan which showed a missed abortion at nine weeks, evidence of a...</p></li><li><a href="/c/articles/92968840/fetal-bone-remnant-as-cause-abnormal-uterine-bleeding">Fetal Bone Remnant as a Cause of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.</a> Dahiya, Pushpa; Dalal, Monika // Journal of Gynecologic Surgery;Dec2013, Vol. 29 Issue 6, p330 <p style="color:#666;font-size:90%;">Background: The presence of intrauterine bone fragments is a rare condition. Abnormal uterine bleeding from retained fetal bone is an even more rare condition. Case: A 34-year-old para 3, abortus 1, married woman presented with abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) in the form of polymenorrhea and...</p></li></ul> </div> <!-- end #content-inner --> </div> <!-- end #content --> </div> <!-- end #content-wrap --> <div id="column-more"> <div class="ad-space-top"> <!-- /23081961/ConnectionEBSCO_300x250_ATF --><div id="div-gpt-ad-1476799672027-2" style="height:250px; width:300px;"><script>googletag.cmd.push(function() { googletag.display("div-gpt-ad-1476799672027-2"); });</script></div> </div><!-- end .ad-space --> <div class="clear"></div> <div id="header-share"><span>Share</span></div> <div id="share-wrap"> <div id="share-inner"> <!-- AddThis Button BEGIN --> <script type="text/javascript"> var addthis_config = { pubid: 'ra-4ecd057821450fd0' } </script> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style"> <a class="addthis_button_delicious"><img src="/sites/all/themes/ehc/images/icon-del.jpg" alt="" /></a> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"><img src="/sites/all/themes/ehc/images/icon-twi.jpg" alt="" /></a> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"><img src="/sites/all/themes/ehc/images/icon-fb.jpg" alt="" /></a> <a class="addthis_button_google"><img src="/sites/all/themes/ehc/images/icon-goo.jpg" alt="" /></a> <a class="addthis_button_diigo"><img src="/sites/all/themes/ehc/images/icon-diigo.jpg" alt="" /></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"><img src="/sites/all/themes/ehc/images/icon-sta.jpg" alt="" /></a> <a href="http://www.addthis.com/bookmark.php?v=250" class="addthis_button_expanded">More</a> </div> <script type="text/javascript" src="http://s7.addthis.com/js/250/addthis_widget.js"></script> </div> <!-- end #share-inner --> <div id="share-btm"></div> </div> <div class="clear"></div> <div id="library-wrap"> <div id="library-inner"> <h2 class="library-finder"><span>Read the Article</span></h2> <div id="library-content"> <p>Courtesy of <strong>VIRGINIA BEACH PUBLIC LIBRARY AND SYSTEM</strong> </p><p>Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.</p><div class="more"><a href="http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&authtype=cookie&db=8gh&db=asx&db=b9h&db=bsh&db=bsx&db=bwh&db=ddu&db=e020mna&db=edb&db=edo&db=edsaac&db=edsaah&db=edsace&db=edsaed&db=edsafa&db=edsaho&db=edsaih&db=edsair&db=edsaks&db=edsalm&db=edsamb&db=edsamh&db=edsaml&db=edsamo&db=edsamw&db=edsarb&db=edsarc&db=edsard&db=edsare&db=edsatl&db=edsatm&db=edsaul&db=edsaup&db=edsavd&db=edsbao&db=edsbas&db=edsbbp&db=edsbbt&db=edsbeb&db=edsbhl&db=edsblc&db=edsbme&db=edsboj&db=edsbps&db=edsbrw&db=edsbzt&db=edscan&db=edscao&db=edscau&db=edscbp&db=edsccr&db=edscdp&db=edscel&db=edscgd&db=edscgf&db=edscha&db=edschs&db=edsclc&db=edsclk&db=edsclt&db=edscnl&db=edscoj&db=edscpi&db=edscra&db=edscrc&db=edscri&db=edscro&db=edscvd&db=edsdar&db=edsdeh&db=edsdeo&db=edsdfl&db=edsdlc&db=edsdmo&db=edsdnt&db=edsdnz&db=edsdom&db=edsdpi&db=edsear&db=edsebr&db=edsecl&db=edseco&db=edseds&db=edseee&db=edsehd&db=edselb&db=edseli&db=edselr&db=edsely&db=edsemm&db=edsemr&db=edseou&db=edserd&db=edseti&db=edseub&db=edseul&db=edseur&db=edsewc&db=edsfis&db=edsfit&db=edsfod&db=edsfrc&db=edsgal&db=edsgbc&db=edsgea&db=edsgec&db=edsggo&db=edsggr&db=edsgij&db=edsgit&db=edsglr&db=edsgml&db=edsgmw&db=edsgnc&db=edsgov&db=edsgrw&db=edsgsb&db=edsgtd&db=edsgtx&db=edsgvr&db=edsgwp&db=edshar&db=edshbo&db=edshla&db=edshrc&db=edshsd&db=edshui&db=edshwr&db=edsiad&db=edsiag&db=edsiap&db=edsibo&db=edsibw&db=edside&db=edsidm&db=edsimf&db=edsimi&db=edsint&db=edsinv&db=edsipa&db=edsipl&db=edsipr&db=edsjoj&db=edsjov&db=edskan&db=edskbr&db=edskdg&db=edsker&db=edskig&db=edsknv&db=edskot&db=edskrm&db=edskrp&db=edskst&db=edslao&db=edslap&db=edslco&db=edslea&db=edsled&db=edsley&db=edslmc&db=edsloc&db=edslrl&db=edslrn&db=edslxp&db=edsmai&db=edsmbr&db=edsmep&db=edsmfo&db=edsmgd&db=edsmgo&db=edsmib&db=edsmid&db=edsmkl&db=edsmmd&db=edsmob&db=edsmoe&db=edsmoj&db=edsmtl&db=edsmwo&db=edsnan&db=edsnas&db=edsnbk&db=edsnbu&db=edsndl&db=edsngv&db=edsnik&db=edsnop&db=edsnor&db=edsnot&db=edsnsm&db=edsnuk&db=edsnum&db=edsnup&db=edsnvl&db=edsnzc&db=edsoai&db=edsocl&db=edsocp&db=edsoec&db=edsohw&db=edsoic&db=edsojs&db=edsonp&db=edsopl&db=edsorb&db=edsorl&db=edsotl&db=edsotz&db=edsovi&db=edsoxf&db=edspdq&db=edspeb&db=edspej&db=edspes&db=edspga&db=edspia&db=edspor&db=edspsn&db=edspso&db=edspsr&db=edspsy&db=edspub&db=edsrem&db=edsrep&db=edsret&db=edsrho&db=edsric&db=edsrom&db=edsrsa&db=edsrts&db=edsrxt&db=edssac&db=edssbi&db=edssbr&db=edsscb&db=edssch&db=edssco&db=edsshm&db=edsshv&db=edsskl&db=edssks&db=edssmd&db=edssol&db=edssta&db=edsstb&db=edsstc&db=edsstg&db=edsstp&db=edssun&db=edssvk&db=edssvl&db=edsswf&db=edsswo&db=edsthw&db=edstor&db=edstox&db=edstoy&db=edstvn&db=edstwa&db=edsucd&db=edsupo&db=edsvbu&db=edsver&db=edsvle&db=edsvlx&db=edsvsi&db=edswao&db=edswbe&db=edswbu&db=edswcl&db=edswcu&db=edswdc&db=edswwo&db=edszac&db=edszad&db=edszae&db=edszan&db=edszap&db=eoah&db=ers&db=f5h&db=kdh&db=kfh&db=neh&db=nlebk&db=nsm&bquery=%28%28SU+%22DIAGNOSIS+of+placenta+diseases%22%29+OR+%28SU+%22PREGNANCY+complications+--+Diagnosis%22%29%29+AND+%28FT+Y%29&type=0&site=ehost-live&scope=site">Read similar articles courtesy of your library</a></div><a class="library-search" href="/library-search?an=38030495">Try another library?</a><form action="/c/articles/38030495/sub-involution-placental-site-after-first-trimester-miscarriage-sonographic-appearances-new-approach-management" method="post" id="logout"> <input type="hidden" name="rc" value="1" /> <a href="#" onclick="$('#logout').submit();">Sign out of this library</a> </form> </div><!-- end #library-content --> </div><!-- end #library-inner --> </div><!-- end #library-wrap --> <div class="clear"></div> <h2>Other Topics</h2> <div id="related-topics-col"> <div class="view view-topics view-id-topics view-display-id-home view-dom-id-2 view-topics view-id-topics view-display-id-home view-dom-id-2"> <div class="view-content"> <ul> <li> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/world/afghanistan">Afghanistan</a></span> </div> </li> <li> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/health/aids-hiv">AIDS / HIV</a></span> </div> </li> <li> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/science/alternative-energy-exploration">Alternative Energy Exploration</a></span> </div> </li> <li> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/science/arctic-drilling">Arctic Drilling</a></span> </div> </li> <li> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/businessfinances/bank-bailout">Bank Bailout</a></span> </div> </li> <li> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/technology/blogging">Blogging</a></span> </div> </li> <li> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/world/border-walls">Border Walls</a></span> </div> </li> <li> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/education/bullying-schools">Bullying in Schools</a></span> </div> </li> <li> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/politics/campaign-finance-reform">Campaign Finance Reform</a></span> </div> </li> <li> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/science/carbon-offsetting">Carbon Offsetting</a></span> </div> </li> <li> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/businessfinances/economic-stimulus-package">Economic Stimulus Package</a></span> </div> </li> <li> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/science/endangered-species">Endangered Species</a></span> </div> </li> <li> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/businessfinances/executive-pay">Executive Pay</a></span> </div> </li> <li> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/science/global-warming">Global Warming</a></span> </div> </li> <li> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/businessfinances/globalization">Globalization</a></span> </div> </li> <li> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/us/gun-control">Gun Control</a></span> </div> </li> <li> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/us/immigration-restrictions">Immigration Restrictions</a></span> </div> </li> <li> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/science/intelligent-design">Intelligent Design</a></span> </div> </li> <li> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/history/iraq-war">Iraq War</a></span> </div> </li> <li> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/politics/israel-palestinians">Israel & the Palestinians</a></span> </div> </li> <li> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/literature/literacy">Literacy</a></span> </div> </li> <li> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/health/medicare">Medicare</a></span> </div> </li> <li> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/politics/north-korea">North Korea</a></span> </div> </li> <li> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/science/nuclear-power">Nuclear Power</a></span> </div> </li> <li> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/health/obesity">Obesity</a></span> </div> </li> <li> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/world/pirates">Pirates</a></span> </div> </li> <li> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/education/sex-education-schools">Sex Education in Schools</a></span> </div> </li> <li> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/technology/social-networking-sites">Social Networking Sites</a></span> </div> </li> <li> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/health/stem-cell-research">Stem Cell Research</a></span> </div> </li> <li> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/health/universal-health-care">Universal Health Care</a></span> </div> </li> <li> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/health/vegetarianism">Vegetarianism</a></span> </div> </li> <li> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/us/war-terror">War on Terror</a></span> </div> </li> </ul> </div> </div> <!-- /.view --> </div> <div class="clear"></div> <div class="ad-space-bottom"> <!-- /23081961/ConnectionEBSCO_300x250_BTF --><div id="div-gpt-ad-1476799672027-0" style="height:250px; width:300px;"><script>googletag.cmd.push(function() { googletag.display("div-gpt-ad-1476799672027-0"); });</script></div> </div><!-- end .ad-space --> <div class="clear"></div> </div> </div> <!-- end #wrap --> <div class="clear"></div> <div class="clear"></div> <div style="text-align:left;"> </div> <div id="footer"> <div id="footer-inner"> <div id="footer-content" class="clearfix"> <div class="column about"> <a title="EBSCOhost Connection Libary Research" href="/"><img src="/sites/all/themes/ehc/images/logo-footer.jpg" alt="EBSCOhost" id="footer-logo" /></a> <p><a href="/about/librarian"><strong>Are You A Librarian?</strong></a></p> <p><a href="/about/publisher"><strong>Are You A Publisher?</strong></a></p> <h4><a href="/about">About EBSCO</a></h4> <ul> <li><a href ="/about/what-is-ebscohost-connection" title="">What is EBSCOhost Connection?</a></li> <li><a href ="/about/how-it-works" title="">How it works</a></li> <li><a href ="/about/faq" title="">FAQ</a></li> <li><a href ="/contact" title="">Contact EBSCO</a></li> </ul> </div> <div class="column popular-topics"> <h4>TODAYS'S POPULAR TOPICS</h4> <div class="view view-popular view-id-popular view-display-id-topic view-dom-id-2 view-popular view-id-popular view-display-id-topic view-dom-id-2"> <div class="view-content"> <div class="item-list"> <ul> <li class="views-row views-row-1 views-row-odd views-row-first"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/education/bullying-schools">Bullying in Schools</a></span> </div> </li> <li class="views-row views-row-2 views-row-even"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/health/aids-hiv">AIDS / HIV</a></span> </div> </li> <li class="views-row views-row-3 views-row-odd"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/world/afghanistan">Afghanistan</a></span> </div> </li> <li class="views-row views-row-4 views-row-even"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/science/alternative-energy-exploration">Alternative Energy Exploration</a></span> </div> </li> <li class="views-row views-row-5 views-row-odd"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/businessfinances/bank-bailout">Bank Bailout</a></span> </div> </li> <li class="views-row views-row-6 views-row-even"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/us/gun-control">Gun Control</a></span> </div> </li> <li class="views-row views-row-7 views-row-odd"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/technology/blogging">Blogging</a></span> </div> </li> <li class="views-row views-row-8 views-row-even"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/science/arctic-drilling">Arctic Drilling</a></span> </div> </li> <li class="views-row views-row-9 views-row-odd"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/world/border-walls">Border Walls</a></span> </div> </li> <li class="views-row views-row-10 views-row-even views-row-last"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/businessfinances/executive-pay">Executive Pay</a></span> </div> </li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <!-- /.view --> </div> <div class="column most-read"> <h4>TODAY'S MOST READ ESSAYS</h4> <div class="view view-popular view-id-popular view-display-id-essay view-dom-id-3 view-popular view-id-popular view-display-id-essay view-dom-id-3"> <div class="view-content"> <div class="item-list"> <ul> <li class="views-row views-row-1 views-row-odd views-row-first"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/science/nuclear-power/history-nuclear-energy-production">History of Nuclear Energy Production</a></span> </div> </li> <li class="views-row views-row-2 views-row-even"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/us/immigration-restrictions/history-immigration-laws-us">History of Immigration Laws in the U.S.</a></span> </div> </li> <li class="views-row views-row-3 views-row-odd"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/world/border-walls/history-border-walls-us-and-around-world">History of Border Walls in the U.S. and Around the World</a></span> </div> </li> <li class="views-row views-row-4 views-row-even"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/politics/israel-palestinians/overview-relations-between-israel-and-palestine">An Overview of Relations Between Israel and Palestine</a></span> </div> </li> <li class="views-row views-row-5 views-row-odd"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/businessfinances/globalization/overview-key-terms-and-definitions-globalization">An Overview of Key Terms and Definitions of Globalization</a></span> </div> </li> <li class="views-row views-row-6 views-row-even"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/us/gun-control/overview-gun-control-debate">Overview of the Gun Control Debate</a></span> </div> </li> <li class="views-row views-row-7 views-row-odd"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/world/afghanistan/current-situation-afghan-war">Current Situation in the Afghan War</a></span> </div> </li> <li class="views-row views-row-8 views-row-even"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/health/universal-health-care/current-state-us-healthcare-system">Current State of the U.S. Healthcare System</a></span> </div> </li> <li class="views-row views-row-9 views-row-odd"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/science/nuclear-power/overview-nuclear-power-plants">An Overview of Nuclear Power Plants</a></span> </div> </li> <li class="views-row views-row-10 views-row-even views-row-last"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="/technology/social-networking-sites/overview-social-networking-websites">An Overview of Social Networking Websites</a></span> </div> </li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <!-- /.view --> </div> <div class="column popular-articles"> <h4>TODAY'S POPULAR ARTICLES</h4> <ul><li><a href="/c/articles/42524753/development-new-cardiac-deformity-indexes-pectus-excavatum-computed-tomography-feasibility-pre-post-operative-evaluation">Development of New Cardiac Deformity Indexes for Pectus Excavatum on Computed Tomography: Feasibility for Pre- and Post-Operative Evaluation.</a></li><li><a href="/c/product-reviews/1939122/mac-os-x-server">Mac OS X Server.</a></li><li><a href="/c/articles/23652208/violence-aggression-physical-assault-healthcare-settings">Violence, aggression and physical assault in healthcare settings.</a></li><li><a href="/c/articles/9073075/xxx-ooo">XXX,OOO.</a></li><li><a href="/c/articles/9410267619/roger-ailes-makeover">The Roger Ailes makeover.</a></li><li><a href="/c/articles/23965539/making-intuition-practical">MAKING INTUITION PRACTICAL.</a></li><li><a href="/c/articles/4840665/exegetical-roots-trinitarian-theology">THE EXEGETICAL ROOTS OF TRINITARIAN THEOLOGY.</a></li><li><a href="/c/articles/47578542/potential-allelopathic-effect-eucalyptus-grandis-across-range-plantation-ages">Potential allelopathic effect of Eucalyptus grandis across a range of plantation ages.</a></li><li><a href="/c/articles/62003466/model-estimation-personal-stature-from-length-forearm">A Model for the Estimation of Personal Stature from the Length of Forearm.</a></li><li><a href="/c/articles/14155785/leadership-all-levels">Leadership At All Levels.</a></li></ul> </div> </div> <!-- end #footer-content --> </div> <!-- end #footer-inner --> </div> <!-- end #footer --> <div class="tabs"></div> <div id="copyright"> <p>© 2018 by EBSCO Publishing. All Rights Reserved. <a href="http://support.ebscohost.com/ehost/privacy.html">Privacy Policy</a> | <a href="http://support.ebscohost.com/ehost/terms.html">Terms of Use</a></p> </div> <!-- end #copyright --> <div id="chrome-frame"></div> <!--[if lte IE 6]> <script src="http://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/chrome-frame/1/CFInstall.min.js" type="text/javascript"></script> <script type="text/javascript"> CFInstall.check({"node":"chrome-frame","mode":"inline"}); </script> <![endif]--><script type="text/javascript"> <!--//--><![CDATA[//><!-- var _gaq = _gaq || [];_gaq.push(["_setAccount", "UA-18045741-3"]);var host = location.protocol + "//" + location.hostname; var pn = location.pathname; _gaq.push(['_setDomainName', '.ebscohost.com']); _gaq.push(['_setAllowLinker', true]);_gaq.push(["_trackPageview"]);(function() {var ga = document.createElement("script");ga.type = "text/javascript";ga.async = true;ga.src = ("https:" == document.location.protocol ? "https://ssl" : "http://www") + ".google-analytics.com/ga.js";var s = document.getElementsByTagName("script")[0];s.parentNode.insertBefore(ga, s);})(); //--><!]]> </script> <!-- ClickTale Bottom part --> <div id="ClickTaleDiv" style="display: none;"></div> <script type="text/javascript"> if(document.location.protocol!='https:') document.write(unescape("%3Cscript%20src='http://s.clicktale.net/WRb6.js'%20type='text/javascript'%3E%3C/script%3E")); </script> <script type="text/javascript"> if(typeof ClickTale=='function') ClickTale(44677,0.1,"www"); </script> <!-- ClickTale end of Bottom part --> </body> </html>