Oxidative stress in the brain of nicotine-induced toxicity: protective role of Andrographis paniculata Nees and vitamin E

Das, Subhasis; Gautam, N.; Dey, Sankar Kumar; Maiti, Tarasankar; Roy, Somenath
April 2009
Applied Physiology, Nutrition & Metabolism;Apr2009, Vol. 34 Issue 2, p124
Academic Journal
Mitochondria are the crossroads of several crucial cellular activities; they produce considerable quantities of superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide, which can damage important macromolecules. Nicotine affects a variety of cellular processes, from induction of gene expression to modulation of enzymatic activities. The aim of this study was to elucidate the protective effects of andrographolide (ANDRO) aqueous extract (AE-Ap) of Andrographis paniculata, and vitamin E on nicotine-induced brain mitochondria. In this investigation, nicotine (1 mg·kg body mass-1·day-1) was treated, for the period of 7 days, simultaneously with 2 A. paniculata products, ANDRO and AE-Ap (250 mg·kg body mass-1·day-1); and vitamin E (50 mg·kg body mass-1·day-1) was supplemented in different group of male Wistar rats. The activities of mitochondrial electron transport chain (Mito-ETC) complexes (I, II, III), nitric oxide production, superoxide anion, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, and concentrations of reduced glutathione and oxidized glutathione were measured in discrete regions of brain (the cerebral hemisphere, cerebellum, diencephalons, and brain stem). The study revealed that nicotine inhibits the Mito-ETC complexes and produces nitric oxide, which suppressed the mitochondrial oxidative stress scavenger system in different brain regions. In these circumstances, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation were noted in different discrete regions of brain mitochondria. ANDRO, AE-Ap, and vitamin E showed the protective potentiality against nicotine toxicity. The analysis of such alterations is important in determining the basis of normal dysfunction in the brain associated with nicotine toxicity, which could be ameliorated by A. paniculata and vitamin E, and may help to develop therapeutic means against nicotine-induced disorders.


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