Data Hiding Techniques Using Prime and Natural Numbers

Dey, Sandipan; Abraham, Ajith; Bandyopadhyay, Bijoy; Sanyal, Sugata
December 2008
Journal of Digital Information Management;Dec2008, Vol. 6 Issue 6, p463
Academic Journal
In this paper, a few novel data hiding techniques are proposed. These techniques are improvements over the classical LSB data-hiding technique and the Fibonacci LSB data-hiding technique proposed by Battisti et al. [1]. The classical LSB technique is the simplest, but using this technique it is possible to embed only in first few bit-planes, since image quality becomes drastically distorted when embedding in higher bit-planes. Battisti et al. [1) proposed an improvement over this by using Fibonacci decomposition technique and generating a different set of virtual bit-planes all together, thereby increasing the number of bit-planes. In this paper, first we mathematically model and generalize this particular approach of virtual bit-plane generation. Then we propose two novel embedding techniques, both of which are special-cases of our generalized model. The first embedding scheme is based on decomposition of a number (pixel-value) in sum of prime numbers, while the second one is based on decomposition in sum of natural numbers. Each of these particular representations generates a different set of (virtual) bit-planes altogether, suitable for embedding purposes. They not only allow one to embed secret message in higher bit-planes but also do it without much distortion, with a much better stego-image quality, in a reliable and secured manner, guaranteeing efficient retrieval of secret message. A comparative performance study between the classical Least Significant Bit (LSB) method, the data hiding technique using Fibonacci-p-Sequence decomposition and our proposed schemes has been done. Theoretical analysis indicates that image quality of the stego-image hidden by the technique using Fibonacci decomposition improves against simple LSB substitution method, while the same using the prime decomposition method improves drastically against that using Fibonacci decomposition technique, and finally the natural number decomposition method is a further improvement against that using prime decomposition technique. Also, optimality for the last technique is proved. For both of our data hiding techniques, the experimental results show that, the stego image is visually indistinguishable from the original cover image.


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