Thermomigration in Pb-free SnAg solder joint under alternating current stressing

Hsiang-Yao Hsiao; Chih Chen
March 2009
Applied Physics Letters;3/2/2009, Vol. 94 Issue 9, pN.PAG
Academic Journal
Lead-free solders have been adopted by the microelectronics industry. However, their thermomigration behaviors are unclear. Thermomigration in eutectic SnAg3.5 solder joints was investigated using an alternating current (ac) of 0.57 A at 100 °C. The ac eliminates the electromigration effect and creates a thermal gradient of 2829 °C/cm, facilitating the study of thermomigration. Arrays of tiny markers fabricated by a focused ion beam are employed to measure the thermomigration rate. It is found that Sn atoms migrated toward the hot end. The thermomigration flux and molar heat of transport are measured to be 5.0×1012 atoms/cm2 and 1.36 kJ/mole, respectively.


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