Is Platelet-rich Plasma the Perfect Enhancement Factor? A Current Review

Sánchez, Andrés R.; Sheridan, Phillip J.; Kupp, Leo I.
January 2003
International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants;Jan/Feb2003, Vol. 18 Issue 1, p93
Academic Journal
Guided bone regeneration is an accepted surgical method employed in implant dentistry to increase the quantity and quality of the host bone in areas of localized alveolar defects. The lack of predictability in osseous regenerative procedures with various grafting materials suggests that improvement in the osteoinductive properties of these materials is highly desirable. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP), a modification of fibrin glue made from autologous blood, is being used to deliver growth factors in high concentration to sites requiring osseous grafting. Growth factors released from the platelets include platelet-derived growth factor, transforming growth factor β, platelet-derived epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived angiogenesis factor, insulin-like growth factor 1, and platelet factor 4. These factors signal the local mesenchymal and epithelial cells to migrate, divide, and increase collagen and matrix synthesis. PRP has been suggested for use to increase the rate of bone deposition and quality of bone regeneration when augmenting sites prior to or in conjunction with dental implant placement. Only 6 human studies using PRP have been found in the dental implant literature and 5 were case series or reports. Thus, there is clearly a lack of scientific evidence to support the use of PRP in combination with bone grafts during augmentation procedures. This novel and potentially promising technique requires well-designed, controlled studies to provide evidence of efficacy.


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