70 nm resolution in subsurface optical imaging of silicon integrated-circuits using pupil-function engineering

Serrels, K. A.; Ramsay, E.; Reid, D. T.
February 2009
Applied Physics Letters;2/16/2009, Vol. 94 Issue 7, pN.PAG
Academic Journal
We present experimental evidence for the resolution-enhancing effect of an annular pupil-plane aperture when performing nonlinear imaging in the vectorial-focusing regime through manipulation of the focal spot geometry. By acquiring two-photon optical beam-induced current images of a silicon integrated-circuit using solid-immersion-lens microscopy at 1550 nm we achieved 70 nm resolution. This result demonstrates a reduction in the minimum effective focal spot diameter of 36%. In addition, the annular-aperture-induced extension of the depth-of-focus causes an observable decrease in the depth contrast of the resulting image and we explain the origins of this using a simulation of the imaging process.


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