Midkine translocated to nucleoli and involved in carcinogenesis

Li-Cheng Dai
January 2009
World Journal of Gastroenterology;1/28/2009, Vol. 15 Issue 4, p412
Academic Journal
Midkine (MK) is a heparin-binding growth factor with its gene first identified in embryonal carcinoma cells at early stages of retinoic acid-induced differentiation. MK is frequently and highly expressed in a variety of human carcinomas. Furthermore, the blood MK level is frequently elevated with advance of human carcinomas, decreased after surgical removal of the tumors. Thus, it is expected to become a promising marker for evaluating the progress of carcinomas. There is mounting evidence that MK plays a significant role in carcinogenesis-related activities, such as proliferation, migration, anti-apoptosis, mitogenesis, transforming, and angiogenesis. In addition, siRNA and anti-sense oligonucleotides for MK have yielded great effects in anti-tumor activities. Therefore, MK appears to be a potential candidate molecular target of therapy for human carcinomas. In this paper, we review MK targeting at nucleoli in different tumor cells and its role in carcinogenesis to deepen our understanding of the mechanism of MK involved in carcinogenesis.


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