Expression of taste molecules in the upper gastrointestinal tract in humans with and without type 2 diabetes

R L Young
March 2009
Gut;Mar2009, Vol. 58 Issue 3, p337
Academic Journal
OBJECTIVE: Nutrient feedback from the small intestine modulates upper gastrointestinal function and energy intake; however, the molecular mechanism of nutrient detection is unknown. In the tongue, sugars are detected via taste T1R2 and T1R3 receptors and signalled via the taste G-protein α-gustducin (Gαgust) and the transient receptor potential ion channel, TRPM5. These taste molecules are also present in the rodent small intestine, and may regulate gastrointestinal function. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Absolute transcript levels for T1R2, T1R3, Gαgustand TRPM5 were quantified in gastrointestinal mucosal biopsies from subjects with and without type 2 diabetes; immunohistochemistry was used to locate Gαgust. Effects of luminal glucose on jejunal expression of taste molecules were also quantified in mice. RESULTS: T1R2, T1R3, Gαgustand TRPM5 were preferentially expressed in the proximal small intestine in humans, with immunolabelling for Gαgustlocalised to solitary cells dispersed throughout the duodenal villous epithelium. Expression of T1R2, T1R3, TRPM5 (all p<0.05) and Gαgust(p<0.001) inversely correlated with blood glucose concentration in type 2 diabetes subjects but, as a group, did not differ from control subjects. Transcript levels of T1R2 were reduced by 84% following jejunal glucose perfusion in mice (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Taste molecules are expressed in nutrient detection regions of the proximal small intestine in humans, consistent with a role in "tasting". This taste molecule expression is decreased in diabetic subjects with elevated blood glucose concentration, and decreased by luminal glucose in mice, indicating that intestinal "taste" signalling is under dynamic metabolic and luminal control.


Related Articles

  • Children and Diabetes. Kaplan-Mayer, Gabrielle // Pediatrics for Parents;2004, Vol. 21 Issue 4, p4 

    Discusses the increase of children diagnosed with type 2 diabetes in the U.S. Definition of type 1 and type 2 diabetes; Causes of diabetes; Inclusion of the treatment.

  • CHAPTER 54: DIABETES. Miller, Richard K.; Washington, Kelli D. // Healthcare Business Market Research Handbook;2006, p304 

    Chapter 54 of the book "The 2006 Healthcare Business Market Research Handbook" is presented. It examines the economic impact of diabetes. The complications of diabetes include nerve damage and blood vessel damage. It looks at the diabetes epidemic in the U.S. It discusses type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

  • Diabetes: Is what you eat to blame? Adolphe, Nicole // Cleo;Nov2003, Issue 373, p189 

    Provides information on diabetes. Variations of diabetes; Factors that may cause diabetes; Diet that can help reduce the risks of Type 2 diabetes; Tips on preventing diabetes.

  • Type 2 Diabetes--A Challenge for the Occupational Health Nurse. Quinn, Lauretta; Richlin, Danielle // AAOHN Journal;Feb2003, Vol. 51 Issue 2, p55 

    Provides information on type 2 diabetes. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the U.S. from 1990 to 1998; Classification of diabetes and other forms of glucose intolerance; Risk factors in the development of type 2 diabetes.

  • Elevated Plasma Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide Associates With Hyperinsulinemia in Impaired Glucose Tolerance. Theodorakis, Michael J.; Carlson, Olga; Muller, Denis C.; Egan, Josephine M. // Diabetes Care;Jul2004, Vol. 27 Issue 7, p1692 

    OBJECTIVE — The role of gut-derived incretin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (also known as gastric inhibitory peptide [GIP]), in compensatory β-cell hypersecretion during insulin-resistant states and in transition to β-cell failure in type 2 diabetes is unknown....

  • Real World Effectiveness of Rosiglitazone Added to Maximal (Tolerated) Doses of Metformin and a Sulfonylurea Agent. Roy, Rajiv; Navar, Maria; Palomeno, Gladys; Davidson, Mayer B. // Diabetes Care;Jul2004, Vol. 27 Issue 7, p1741 

    Presents a systematic evaluation of the real world effectiveness of a triple oral therapy involving the addition of rosiglitazone to maximal doses of metformin and a sulfonylurea agent in a minority population. Research design and methods; Results; Conclusions.

  • The Burden of Treatment Failure in Type 2 Diabetes. Brown, Jonathan B.; Nichols, Gregory A.; Perry, Andrew // Diabetes Care;Jul2004, Vol. 27 Issue 7, p1535 

    OBJECTIVE — In type 2 diabetes, therapies to maintain blood glucose control usually fail after several years. We estimated the glycemic burden that accumulates from treatment failure and describe the time course and predictors of failure. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS — A...

  • Albumin Excretion Rate Is Not Affected by Asymptomatic Urinary Tract Infection. Hernández, Cristina; Simó, Rafael // Diabetes Care;Jul2004, Vol. 27 Issue 7, p1565 

    OBJECTIVE — The aim of the study was to evaluate whether asymptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) significantly influences the level of albumin excretion rate (AER) in diabetic patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS — We screened prospectively for UTI and AER in 765 type 2...

  • Translating Lifestyle Intervention to Practice in Obese Patients With Type 2 Diabetes. Wolf, Anne M.; Conaway, Mark R.; Crowther, Jayne Q.; Hazen, Kristen Y.; Nadler, Jerry L.; Oneida, Beverly; Bovbjerg, Viktor E. // Diabetes Care;Jul2004, Vol. 27 Issue 7, p1570 

    OBJECTIVE — To assess the efficacy of a lifestyle intervention program that can be readily translated into clinical practice for obese patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS — The study consisted of a 12-month randomized controlled trial of 147 health plan...

  • Improved Glycemic Control Without Weight Gain Using Triple Therapy in Type 2 Diabetes. Strowig, Suzanne M.; Avilés-Santa, M. Larissa; Raskin, Philip // Diabetes Care;Jul2004, Vol. 27 Issue 7, p1577 

    OBJECTIVE — To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of triple therapy using insulin, metformin, and a thiazolidinedione following a course of dual therapy using insulin and metformin or insulin and a thiazolidinedione in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS — Twenty-eight...


Read the Article


Sign out of this library

Other Topics