TITLE

A method for the quantification of biomarkers of exposure to acrylonitrile and 1,3-butadiene in human urine by column-switching liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

AUTHOR(S)
Schettgen, T.; Musiol, A.; Alt, A.; Ochsmann, E.; Kraus, T.
PUB. DATE
February 2009
SOURCE
Analytical & Bioanalytical Chemistry;Feb2009, Vol. 393 Issue 3, p969
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
1,3-Butadiene and acrylonitrile are important industrial chemicals that have a high production volume and are ubiquitous environmental pollutants. The urinary mercapturic acids of 1,3-butadiene and acrylonitrile— N-acetyl- S-(3,4-dihydroxybutyl)cysteine (DHBMA) and MHBMA (an isomeric mixture of N-acetyl- S-((1-hydroxymethyl)-2-propenyl)cysteine and N-acetyl- S-((2-hydroxymethyl)-3-propenyl)cysteine) for the former and N-acetyl- S-2-cyanoethylcysteine (CEMA) for the latter—are specific biomarkers for the determination of individual internal exposure to these chemicals. We have developed and validated a fast, specific, and very sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of DHBMA, MHBMA, and CEMA in human urine using an automated multidimensional LC/MS/MS method that requires no additional sample preparation. Analytes are stripped from urinary matrix by online extraction on a restricted access material, transferred to the analytical column, and subsequently determined by tandem mass spectrometry using labeled internal standards. The limits of quantification (LOQs) for DHBMA, MHBMA, and CEMA were 10 µg/L, 2 µg/L, and 1 µg/L urine, respectively, and were sufficient to quantify the background exposure of the general population. Precision within series and between series for all analytes ranged from 5.4 to 9.9%; mean accuracy was between 95 and 115%. We applied the method on spot urine samples from 210 subjects from the general population with no occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene or acrylonitrile. A background exposure of the general population to acrylonitrile was discovered that is basically influenced by individual exposure to passive smoke as well as active smoking habits. Smokers showed a significantly higher excretion of MHBMA, whereas DHBMA levels did not differ significantly. Owing to its automation, our method is well suited for application in occupational or environmental studies. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]
ACCESSION #
36280134

 

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