Multivariate analysis of DSC–XRD simultaneous measurement data: a study of multistage crystalline structure changes in a linear poly(ethylene imine) thin film

Kakuda, Hiroyuki; Okada, Tetsuo; Otsuka, Makoto; Katsumoto, Yukiteru; Hasegawa, Takeshi
January 2009
Analytical & Bioanalytical Chemistry;Jan2009, Vol. 393 Issue 1, p367
Academic Journal
A multivariate analytical technique has been applied to the analysis of simultaneous measurement data from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) in order to study thermal changes in crystalline structure of a linear poly(ethylene imine) (LPEI) film. A large number of XRD patterns generated from the simultaneous measurements were subjected to an augmented alternative least-squares (ALS) regression analysis, and the XRD patterns were readily decomposed into chemically independent XRD patterns and their thermal profiles were also obtained at the same time. The decomposed XRD patterns and the profiles were useful in discussing the minute peaks in the DSC. The analytical results revealed the following changes of polymorphisms in detail: An LPEI film prepared by casting an aqueous solution was composed of sesquihydrate and hemihydrate crystals. The sesquihydrate one was lost at an early stage of heating, and the film changed into an amorphous state. Once the sesquihydrate was lost by heating, it was not recovered even when it was cooled back to room temperature. When the sample was heated again, structural changes were found between the hemihydrate and the amorphous components. In this manner, the simultaneous DSC–XRD measurements combined with ALS analysis proved to be powerful for obtaining a better understanding of the thermally induced changes of the crystalline structure in a polymer film. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]


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