Use of seclusion and restraint, and its relationship to the patient's gender -- a retrospective multi-center study from three departments' of acute emergency psychiatry

Knutzen, Maria
January 2007
BMC Psychiatry;2007 Supplement 1, Vol. 7, Special section p1
Academic Journal
Background Previous studies show inconsistent findings about gender association with seclusion and restraint. A study from an acute emergency department showed that the number of women secluded and restrained were lower than for the men. But among repeatedly secluded and restrained patients the women were in the majority and they also had more episodes with seclusion and restraint. Methods In an ongoing multi-center study conducted in three acute emergency psychiatry institutions, we retrospectively examine data from seclusion and restraint protocols and data about all the patients admitted over a two-year period. We note how many patients have had episodes with seclusion and restraint. We also note duration/time/ date of each episode and the reason given for using seclusion and restraint and the relationship by gender. Each patient is only counted once in this period, controlling for readmission. Results Preliminary findings from one of the departments replicate findings in the study from the 1994 - 1999, that the total number of men secluded and restrained was higher than that of women, but among repeatedly secluded and restrained patients the women were in the majority. At the congress we will present results from all three departments. Conclusion Our data indicate that the use of seclusion and restraints varies by gender and show the need to study not only the rate of seclusion and restraint, but also the episodes of seclusion and restraint by gender.


Related Articles

  • Patients' experiences of coercive treatment and coercive measures in psychiatric care. Wallsten, Tuula; Kjellin, Lars // BMC Psychiatry;2007 Supplement 1, Vol. 7, Special section p1 

    Background To study coercive treatment like forced medication and coercive measures like seclusion and mechanical restraint during inpatient psychiatric care among committed and voluntarily admitted patients and also to study patients attitudes to coercive treatment and measures. Methods A...

  • Epidemiology of inpatient violence and coercive measures. Steinert, Tilman // BMC Psychiatry;2007 Supplement 1, Vol. 7, Special section p1 

    Objective To give an overview of the current knowledge on the epidemiology of in-patient violence and coercive measures in clinical psychiatry. Methods Many studies have been conducted on the epidemiology of in-patient violence by use of standardized scales such as the SOAS-R. Much research on...

  • 1-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial comparing seclusion and mechanical restraint in people with serious mental illness. Bergk, Jan; Birk, Michael; Steinert, Tilman // BMC Psychiatry;2007 Supplement 1, Vol. 7, Special section p1 

    Background Seclusion and mechanical restraint are widely used for people with serious mental disorders. In most countries one intervention is preferred while the other is considered as inhuman or not sufficiently safe, but identical arguments refer to different preferences. There is a lack of...

  • DEFERENCE ≠ ABDICATION: APPLICATION OF YOUNGBERG TO PROLONGED SECLUSION AND RESTRAINT OF THE MENTALLY ILL. Weltman, Jeremy Y.; MacLeish, Roderick; Bumbaca, Jacquelyn E. // Stanford Law & Policy Review;2015, Vol. 26 Issue 1, p239 

    It is the sad reality that our prisons have become the new "institutions" for housing the severely mentally ill in the aftermath of the deinstitutionalization movement. Instead of compassionate medical treatment, these individuals are often isolated for long periods of time (seclusion) or tied...

  • JCAHO seeks hospitals to test psychiatric measures. Gebhart, Fred // Drug Topics;9/18/2006, Vol. 150 Issue 18, special section p16 

    The article reports that psychiatric hospitals are being sought by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) to participate in hospital-based performance measures for inpatient psychiatric care. The measures cover use of seclusion, use of restraints, patient...

  • A Fifteen-Year Review of Female Admissions to Carstairs State Hospital. Brooks, Patrick W.; Mitchell, Geoffrey // British Journal of Psychiatry;Nov75, Vol. 127, p448 

    A survey was made of all female admissions to the State Hospital, Carstairs, between the time of the first female admissions in 1959, and 31 December 1973. There were 66 female admissions, constituting 7 · 1 per cent of the total admissions over the same period. The females fall into two...

  • Provider groups unite on seclusion and restraint document.  // Getting Paid in Behavioral Healthcare;Mar2003, Vol. 8 Issue 3, p5 

    Reports on the publication of 'Learning From Each Other: Success Stories and Ideas for Reducing Restraint/Seclusion in Behavioral Health,' by a collaboration of national health associations. Offer of strategies that direct-care providers and administrators can consider as they update policies...

  • A comparison between seven Swiss and seven German hospitals concerning the use of coercive measures. Bernhardsgrütter, Renate // BMC Psychiatry;2007 Supplement 1, Vol. 7, Special section p1 

    Background In 2004, two independent working groups in Germany and Switzerland compared the frequency and duration of coercive measures in standard psychiatric care across 14 psychiatric hospitals in Germany and Switzerland. The objective was to establish an international knowledge transfer...

  • Legislation and practice of coercive measures during in-patient treatment in 12 European countries: results of a case vignette study. Steinert, Tilman; Lepping, Peter; Needham, Ian // BMC Psychiatry;2007 Supplement 1, Vol. 7, Special section p1 

    Background Patients who exhibit violent behavior or refuse medication during in-patient treatment are a challenge for clinical management. The management of those clinical situations is different in European countries with respect to legislation and clinical routine. Methods We selected three...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics