Use of seclusion and restraint, and its relationship to the patient's gender -- a retrospective multi-center study from three departments' of acute emergency psychiatry

Knutzen, Maria
January 2007
BMC Psychiatry;2007 Supplement 1, Vol. 7, Special section p1
Academic Journal
Background Previous studies show inconsistent findings about gender association with seclusion and restraint. A study from an acute emergency department showed that the number of women secluded and restrained were lower than for the men. But among repeatedly secluded and restrained patients the women were in the majority and they also had more episodes with seclusion and restraint. Methods In an ongoing multi-center study conducted in three acute emergency psychiatry institutions, we retrospectively examine data from seclusion and restraint protocols and data about all the patients admitted over a two-year period. We note how many patients have had episodes with seclusion and restraint. We also note duration/time/ date of each episode and the reason given for using seclusion and restraint and the relationship by gender. Each patient is only counted once in this period, controlling for readmission. Results Preliminary findings from one of the departments replicate findings in the study from the 1994 - 1999, that the total number of men secluded and restrained was higher than that of women, but among repeatedly secluded and restrained patients the women were in the majority. At the congress we will present results from all three departments. Conclusion Our data indicate that the use of seclusion and restraints varies by gender and show the need to study not only the rate of seclusion and restraint, but also the episodes of seclusion and restraint by gender.


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