A Review: Development of a Microdose Model for Analysis of Adaptive Response and Bystander Dose Response Behavior

Leonard, Bobby E.
April 2008
Dose-Response;2008, Vol. 6 Issue 2, p113
Academic Journal
Prior work has provided incremental phases to a microdosimetry modeling program to describe the dose response behavior of the radio-protective adaptive response effect. We have here consolidated these prior works (Leonard 2000, 2005, 2007a, 2007b, 2007c) to provide a composite, comprehensive Microdose Model that is also herein modified to include the bystander effect. The nomenclature for the model is also standardized for the benefit of the experimental cellular radio-biologist. It extends the prior work to explicitly encompass separately the analysis of experimental data that is 1.) only dose dependent and reflecting only adaptive response radio-protection, 2.) both dose and dose-rate dependent data and reflecting only adaptive response radio-protection for spontaneous and challenge dose damage, 3.) only dose dependent data and reflecting both bystander deleterious damage and adaptive response radio-protection (AR-BE model). The Appendix cites the various applications of the model. Here we have used the Microdose Model to analyze the, much more human risk significant, Elmore et al (2006) data for the dose and dose rate influence on the adaptive response radio-protective behavior of HeLa x Skin cells for naturally occurring, spontaneous chromosome damage from a Brachytherapy type 125I photon radiation source. We have also applied the AR-BE Microdose Model to the Chromosome inversion data of Hooker et al (2004) reflecting both low LET bystander and adaptive response effects. The micro-beam facility data of Miller et al (1999), Nagasawa and Little (1999) and Zhou et al (2003) is also examined. For the Zhou et al (2003) data, we use the AR-BE model to estimate the threshold for adaptive response reduction of the bystander effect. The mammogram and diagnostic X-ray induction of AR and protective BE are observed. We show that bystander damage is reduced in the similar manner as spontaneous and challenge dose damage as shown by the Azzam et al (1996) data. We cite primary unresolved questions regarding adaptive response behavior and bystander behavior. The five features of major significance provided by the Microdose Model so far are 1.) Single Specific Energy Hits initiate Adaptive Response, 2.) Mammogram and diagnostic X-rays induce a protective Bystander Effect as well as Adaptive Response radio-protection. 3.) For mammogram X-rays the Adaptive Response protection is retained at high primer dose levels. 4.) The dose range of the AR protection depends on the value of the Specific Energy per Hit, . 5.) Alpha particle induced deleterious Bystander damage is modulated by low LET radiation.


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