TITLE

Import of Biofuels into and the Marketing off Biofuels in the European Union: an Analysis of the Current Law on Customs, Energy Taxes and Biofuel Quotas

AUTHOR(S)
Stein, Roland M.
PUB. DATE
November 2008
SOURCE
Journal of Energy & Natural Resources Law;Nov2008, Vol. 26 Issue 4, p600
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
Currently, there is an ongoing discussion about the pros and cons of biofuels. However it is an inalienable fact that it is not realistic to reduce greenhouse gases in the transport sector using current fuels. Therefore, biofuels have to be promoted. In order to increase the use of bio fuels it is first important to produce more bio fuels at both the national and the European level. Secondly, however imports of bio fuels from countries outside the European Union have to increase. This article analyses the implications of importing these products into the European Union from the perspective of customs and energy tax law as well as the so-called biofuel quota. Under current European customs law there is no single classification for bio fuels. Depending on their chemical make-up, biofuels are treated as chemical or agricultural products. While bioethanol is classified as alcohol, the classification of vegetable oil depends on its intended use. The classification of biodiesel differs depending on whether it is pure biodiesel or not. Once a biofuel is within the European Union, it may be regarded as an energy product. This is the case when the product is suitable for use and is used as a fuel. In this case, the biofuel may be subject to energy tax. Some European Member States grant tax relief but others, eg, in a recent move, Germany, only grant tax relief for unmixed products. The increase of the minimum level of biofuel that is put into circulation on the internal market is a target set out by the European Union. To achieve this aim, the German and other governments introduced bio fuel quotas. Companies have to guarantee a particular minimum bio fuel quota each calendar year. This quota may be satisfied by placing pure biodiesel on the market or by mixing it into mineral fuels. Furthermore, companies may trade in quotas. In the future, certain sustainability requirements will play an important role.
ACCESSION #
35405380

 

Related Articles

  • Biofuels: policies and impacts. Janda, Karel; Kristoufek, Ladislav; Zilberman, David // Agricultural Economics / Zemedelska Ekonomika;2012, Vol. 58 Issue 8, p372 

    This paper provides a general overview of the technological, social, environmental, economical, and policy considerations related to biofuels. While the biofuel production and consumption exhibited significant increase over the first decade of the new millennium, this and further increases in...

  • Researchers push butanol as biofuel answer. Lammers, Dirk // North Texas Automotive Report;Dec2008, Vol. 11 Issue 3, p7 

    The article outlines the status of butanol as a biofuel in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. Previously, butanaol is used as paint thinner, cleaner and adhesive, but researchers found that it contains more energy compared to ethanol and could be blended into existing cars at higher percentages....

  • Secretory pathway of cellulase: a mini-review. Shaomin Yan; Guang Wu // Biotechnology for Biofuels;2013, Vol. 6 Issue 1, p1 

    Cellulase plays an important role in modern industry and holds great potential in biofuel production. Many different types of organisms produce cellulase, which go through secretory pathways to reach the extracellular space, where enzymatic reactions take place. Secretory pathways in various...

  • KIT's new algal biofuels technology.  // TCE: The Chemical Engineer;Sep2009, Issue 819, p6 

    The article discusses an algae platform being set up by Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) in Germany which aims to develop algal biofuels using two research programmes. A closed photobioreactor with vertically-arranged plates of algae is being developed by a team at the Institute of Life...

  • The Neighborhood Refinery. D'Antonio, Steve // Professional Boatbuilder;Dec2008/Jan2009, Issue 116, p30 

    The article discusses information on the VA BioDiesel Refinery in West Point, Virginia. The refinery is headed by general manager, Denny Sulick. The facility is engaged in the production of B100 biodiesel from soy oil to poultry processing by-products, and is capable of yielding 8-10 million...

  • Fuelling the future. Carmichael, Helen; Odriscoll, Cath // ICIS Chemical Business;2/20/2006, Vol. 1 Issue 7, p22 

    The article focuses on the move of Europe and the U.S. to produce biofuels in their efforts to lessen their dependency on oil imports. The first biofuel programs were boosted by Common Agricultural Policy reforms in 1992. The European Union is working towards secure energy supplies. European...

  • Renewable energy generates multiple benefits for the nation. Smith, Ron // Southwest Farm Press;10/5/2006, Vol. 33 Issue 19, p5 

    The article shares the author's insights about the renewable energy in the U.S. The author notes that they are going to explore the potential replacement of their fossil use with an energy that will be produced by the researchers and industrialists. He said that they are looking for the...

  • Green and growing? Traczek, Chris // National Petroleum News;Oct2006, Vol. 98 Issue 11, p4 

    The article discusses the issue concerning the use of alternative fuel such as biodiesel in replacement of gasoline. The author provides an overview on the ethanol-based E85 fuel generated from corn. Despite the possible advantages, still, E85's viability is remains in question. The author...

  • Home Brew How a small-scale accident put a Canadian ex-pat in the front row of the international biofuel discussion. Estill, Lyle // Alternatives Journal (AJ) - Canada's Environmental Voice;Apr2009, Vol. 35 Issue 2, p10 

    The article discusses the sustainability for biofuels in Canada. The author narrates his personal experience in producing his local biodiesel fuel produced from used cooking oils. He notes the other biodiesel fuels which are produced from feedstock such as canola and soy. He mentions that...

Share

Read the Article

Courtesy of THE LIBRARY OF VIRGINIA

Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics