Botulinum Neurotoxin as a Therapeutic Modality in Orthopaedic Surgery: More Than Twenty Years of Experience

Seyler, Thorsten M.; Smith, Beth P.; Marker, David R.; Jianjun Ma; Jian Shen; Smith, Tom L.; Mont, Michael A.; Kolaski, Kat; Koman, L. Andrew
November 2008
Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery, American Volume;Nov2008 Supplement 4, Vol. 90-A, p133
Academic Journal
The article presents an overview of the role of botulinum toxins, and in particular type A botulinum toxin, as a therapeutic modality in musculoskeletal conditions and in orthopedic surgery, on the basis of peer reviewed literature. A discussion of off label indications for drugs, as defined by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, is presented.


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