Low temperature boron and phosphorus activation in amorphous germanium using Ni- and Co-induced crystallization and its application for three-dimensional integrated circuits

Park, Jin-Hong; Tada, Munehiro; Kapur, Pawan; Saraswat, Krishna C.
November 2008
Applied Physics Letters;11/3/2008, Vol. 93 Issue 18, p183512
Academic Journal
In this work, we present very low temperature boron (B) and phosphorus (P) activation technique in amorphous (α)-Ge using nickel (Ni)- and cobalt (Co)-induced crystallization. Ni and Co not only crystallize an α-Ge film, they also facilitate activation of the respective B and P atoms in the α-Ge during the crystallization process at temperatures as low as 360 °C. The feasibility of the low temperature activation technique has been demonstrated for a Ge gate electrode in a Si P-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor using Schottky Ni (or Co) silicide source/drain.


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