The Pathogenic Impacts Of The Anti-Ulcer Drug Omeprazole On Some Morphological And Histological Aspects Of The Fetuses Of The Albino Mice

Eissa, Mona I.; Ramadan, Ramadan A.; Shahin, Mohamed A.; Sabry, Sahar A.
June 2008
Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine;Jun2008, Vol. 31, p180
Academic Journal
Introduction:- The anti-ulcer drug omeprazole with the trade name "Losec" is considered as one of the most important and widely used drug in the medical area in Egypt. It is used for the promotion of healing of the gastric peptic ulcers, duodenal ulcers and reflux oesophagitis as well as cases of Zollinger Elison syndrome. These cases are originating from the hypersecretion of HCl by the gastric parietal cells. In spite of such important role of this drug, yet some medical clarification incriminating it for producing certain adverse consequnes following its usage. Material And Methods: - Hence, the present study aims to assess and evaluate any possible expected anomalies following the usage of the therapeutic dose of the anti-ulcer drug omeprazole (0.03mg/kg body weight) on materally treated fetuses of albino mice. This study was concentrated on the morphological, skeletal and histological follow up of dose such drug and the target organs chosen in this survey were the liver and the kidney. The present study was carried out on a group of pregnant females of albino mice and their fetuses, they were sub-divided into six sub-groups (10 mice each). The first three sub-groups are considered as control. Females of the first sub-group are injected intraperitoneally with the drug solvent (distilled water) for seven days (from day 7 till day 13 of pregnancy). The second sub-group is injected similarly with the drug solvent for14 days before pregnancy. Animals of the third sub-group are injected intraperitoneally with the drug solvent for 21 days (14 days before pregnancy and 7 days during gestation). Females of the last three sub-groups (4, 5 & 6) are injected with 0.03mg/kg body weight of the anti-ulcer drug in a manner similar to those performed in the first three sub-groups. Results :-The morphological results showed that treatment with the drug doses revealed conspicuous decrease in the body weight and body length of maternally treated fetuses in all experimental groups. But, these fetuses did not show any external morphological malformations in all experimental groups. However, while these fetuses appeared smaller in size as compared with those of the control groups. The skeleton of the maternally treated fetuses exhibited growth retardation of the skeletal elements. The histopathological results revealed marked changes in the foetal liver and kidney of all treated groups. The liver cells exhibited cytoplasmic vacuolar and fatty degeneration, beside noticeable nuclear pyknosis and karyolysis. The hepatic vasculatures (central veins & blood sinusoids) displayed conspicuous dilatation and congestion with marked deterioration of the portal veins as well as inflammatory cellular infiltration. Moreover, the hepatic tissue showed focal areas of haemorrhagic edema. Kidney cortex showed variable degrees of devastation symptoms formed principally of erosion of the epithelial cells of Bowman's capsule followed by disruption of the glomerular capillaries and mesangial proliferation in some cases and hypoplasia in other cases. Proximal and distal convoluted tubules are detached from each other allowing wider intertubular spaces which become invaded with necro- inflammatory leucocytes and extravasated blood from the damaged capillaries allowing edema formation. The lining epithelial cells of these tubular structures manifested variable degrees of vacuolar degeneration and coagulative necrosis. Their nuclei showed pyknosis and karyolysis. In conclusion: The use of the anti-ulcer drug omeprazole in the present investigation had exerted noticeable consequences in the morphological, skeletal and histological parameters of the fetuses of albino mice and the severity of such lesions are correlated with the period of drug administration before and during the gestation periods.


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