Influences of multiple low-n modes on n=1 resistive wall mode identification and feedback control

In, Y.; Kim, J.; Kim, J. S.; Garofalo, A. M.; Jackson, G. L.; La Haye, R. J.; Strait, E. J.; Okabayashi, M.; Reimerdes, H.
October 2008
Physics of Plasmas;Oct2008, Vol. 15 Issue 10, p102506
Academic Journal
It is well known in theory that even after the n=1 resistive wall mode (RWM) is suppressed, the other low-n modes, such as n=2 or 3, can appear sequentially, as β increases. In recent DIII-D experiments [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)], we found such an example that supports the theoretical prediction: while the n=1 mode was suppressed, an n=3 mode grew dominant, leading to a β collapse. The n=1 RWM suppression was likely due to a combination of rotational stabilization and n=1 RWM feedback. The multiple RWM identification was performed using an expanded matched filter, where n=1 and n=3 RWM basis vectors are simultaneously considered. Taking advantage of the expanded matched filter, we found that an n=3 mode following an edge-localized-mode burst grew almost linearly for several milliseconds without being hindered. This n=3 mode appeared responsible for the β collapse (down to the n=3 no-wall limit), as well as for a drop in toroidal rotation. A preliminary analysis suggests that the identity of the n=3 mode could be related to the n=3 RWM (possibly the first observation in tokamak experiments), while the impact of the n=3 mode was not as destructive as that of n=1 RWM. A numerical postprocessing of Mirnov probes showed that the n=2 mode was also unstable, consistent with the theoretical prediction. In practice, since the presence of an n=3 mode can interfere with the existing n=1 RWM identification, multiple low-n mode identification is deemed essential not only to detect n>1 mode, but also to provide accurate n=1 RWM identification and feedback control.


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