In vitro nonenzymatic glycation of guanosine 5′-triphosphate by dihydroxyacetone phosphate

Li, Yuyuan; Cohenford, Menashi A.; Dutta, Udayan; Dain, Joel A.
November 2008
Analytical & Bioanalytical Chemistry;Nov2008, Vol. 392 Issue 6, p1189
Academic Journal
Dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) is a glycolytic intermediate that has been found to be significantly elevated in the erythrocytes of diabetic patients and patients with triosephosphate isomerase deficiency. DHAP spontaneously breaks down to methylglyoxal, a potent glycating agent that reacts with proteins and nucleic acids in vivo to form advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). Like methylglyoxal, DHAP itself is also a glycating metabolite, capable of condensing with proteins and altering their structure or function. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the susceptibility of nucleotides to nonenzymatic attack by DHAP, and to determine the factors influencing the rate and extent of nucleotide glycation by this sugar. Of the four nucleotide triphosphates (ATP, CTP, GTP and UTP) that were studied, only GTP was reactive, forming a wide range of UV and fluorescent products with DHAP. Increases in temperature and nucleotide concentration enhanced the rate and extent of GTP glycation by DHAP and promoted the heterogeneity of AGEs. Capillary electrophoresis, HPLC, and mass spectrometry allowed for a thorough analysis of the glycated products and demonstrated that the reaction of DHAP with GTP occurred via the classical Amadori pathway.


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