Electrosynthesized, non-conducting films of poly(2-naphthol): electrochemical and XPS investigations

Ciriello, Rosanna; Guerrieri, Antonio; Pavese, Filomena; Salvi, Anna Maria
November 2008
Analytical & Bioanalytical Chemistry;Nov2008, Vol. 392 Issue 5, p913
Academic Journal
Advanced biosensors are frequently based on electrosynthesized polymeric films. In this context, the electrosynthesis mechanism underlying the electrochemical oxidation of 2-naphthol (2-NAP) in phosphate buffer at pH 7 on Pt electrodes has been investigated. The voltammetric behaviour suggested the formation of a non-conducting polymer (poly(2-NAP)) through an irreversible electrochemical process complicated by 2-NAP adsorption and fast electrode passivation. Repeat experiments showed the passive films to be strongly adherent to the Pt surface with thicknesses of approximately 10 nm, as estimated by in-situ electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) measurements and by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The polymer structure was then investigated by XPS, which gave evidence of the presence of naphthalene rings bonded through poly(oxide) groups (C–O–C) and of quinonoid groups, probably present as the ends of polymeric chains. The polymer repeat unit and terminal groups derived by XPS analysis are in accordance with electrochemical results and with synthesis routes reported for phenol-derived compounds in aqueous solution. XPS also gave evidence of a large excess of oxygen, probably arising from water molecules entrapped by the polymeric chains, as suggested by angle-resolved XPS and thermal treatment of poly(2-NAP)/Pt film under ultra-high vacuum (UHV).


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