Failure induced by thermomigration of interstitial Cu in Pb-free flip chip solder joints

Hsiao-Yun Chen; Chih Chen; King-Ning Tu
September 2008
Applied Physics Letters;9/22/2008, Vol. 93 Issue 12, p122103
Academic Journal
Failure induced by thermomigration in Pb-free SnAg flip chip solder joints has been investigated by electromigration tests under 9.7×103 A/cm2 at 150 °C. The fast interstitial diffusion of Cu atoms from underbump metallization into Sn matrix caused void formation at the passivation opening on the chip side. The Cu diffusion was driven by a large thermal gradient and led to void formation even in the neighboring unpowered bumps. When the thermal gradient is above 400 °C/cm, theoretical calculation indicates that the thermomigration force is greater than the electromigration force at 9.7×103 A/cm2 stressing.


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