Collaborative Effects of Cold Surge and Tropical Depression–Type Disturbance on Heavy Rainfall in Central Vietnam

Yokoi, Satoru; Matsumoto, Jun
September 2008
Monthly Weather Review;Sep2008, Vol. 136 Issue 9, p3275
Academic Journal
This paper reveals synoptic-scale atmospheric conditions over the South China Sea (SCS) that cause heavy rainfall in central Vietnam through case study and composite analyses. The heavy rainfall event discussed in this study occurred on 2–3 November 1999. Precipitation in Hue city (central Vietnam) was more than 1800 mm for these 2 days. Two atmospheric disturbances played key roles in this heavy rainfall. First, a cold surge (CS) northerly wind anomaly in the lower troposphere, originating in northern China near 40°N, propagated southward to reach the northern SCS and then lingered there for a couple of days, resulting in stronger-than-usual northeasterly winds continuously blowing into the Indochina Peninsula against the Annam Range. Second, a southerly wind anomaly over the central SCS, associated with a tropical depression–type disturbance (TDD) in southern Vietnam, seemed to prevent the CS from propagating farther southward. Over the northern SCS, the southerly wind anomaly formed a strong low-level convergence in conjunction with the CS northeasterly wind anomaly, and supplied warm and humid tropical air. These conditions induced by the CS and TDD are favorable for the occurrence of the heavy orographic rainfall in central Vietnam. The TDD can be regarded as a result of a Rossby wave response to a large-scale convective anomaly over the Maritime Continent associated with equatorial intraseasonal variability. Using a 24-yr (1979–2002) reanalysis and surface precipitation datasets, the authors confirm that the coexistence of the CS and TDD is important for the occurrence of heavy precipitation in central Vietnam. In addition, it is observed that CSs without a TDD do not lead to much precipitation.


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