Surveillance for Cancers Associated with Tobacco Use -- United States, 1999-2004

Stewart, Sherri L.; Cardinez, Cheryll J.; Richardson, Lisa C.; Norman, Leslie; Kaufmann, Rachel; Pechacek, Terry F.; Thompson, Trevor D.; Weir, Hannah K.; Sabatino, Susan A.
September 2008
MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report;9/6/2008, Vol. 57 Issue SS-8, p1
Problem/Condition: Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of disease and premature death in the United States. The 2004 Surgeon General report found convincing evidence for a direct causal relationship between tobacco use and the following cancers: lung and bronchial, laryngeal, oral cavity and pharyngeal, esophageal, stomach, pancreatic, kidney and renal pelvis, urinary bladder, and cervical cancers and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). This report provides state-level cancer incidence data and recent trends for cancers associated with tobacco use. Because information on tobacco use was not available in the databases of the National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR) and Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program, cases of cancer included in this report might or might not be in persons who used tobacco; however, the cancer types included in this report are those defined by the U.S. Surgeon General as having a direct causal relationship with tobacco use (i.e., referred to as tobacco-related cancer in this report). These data are important for initiation, monitoring, and evaluation of targeted tobacco prevention and control measures. Reporting Period Covered: 1999-2004. Description of Systems: Data were obtained from cancer registries affiliated with CDC's NPCR and the National Cancer Institute's SEER program; combined, these data cover approximately 92% of the U.S. population. Combined data from the NPCR and SEER programs provide the best source of information on population-based cancer incidence for the nation and are the only source of information for 41 states (including the District of Columbia) with cancer surveillance programs that are funded solely by NPCR. This report provides age-adjusted cancer incidence rates by demographic and geographic characteristics, percentage distributions for tumor characteristics, and trends in cancer incidence by sex. Results: Approximately 2.4 million cases of tobacco-related cancer were diagnosed during 1999-2004. Age-adjusted incidence rates ranged from 4.0 per 100,000 persons (for AML) to 69.4 (for lung and bronchial cancer). High rates occurred among men, black and non-Hispanic populations, and older adults. Higher incidence rates of lung and laryngeal cancer occurred in the South compared with other regions, particularly the West, consistent with high smoking patterns in the South. Interpretation: The high rates of tobacco-related cancer observed among men, blacks, non-Hispanics, and older adults reflect overall demographic patterns of cancer incidence in the United States and reflect patterns of tobacco use. Public Health Action: The findings in this report emphasize the need for ongoing surveillance and reporting to monitor cancer incidence trends, identify populations at greatest risk for developing cancer related to tobacco use, and evaluate the effectiveness of targeted tobacco control programs and policies.


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